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US History 2 Midterm

Us History 2 Midterm Review

Treaty where the Sioux tribe agreed to live on reservation to attempt to end conflicts between the US and Sioux (Sitting Bull refused to sign) Treaty of Fort Laramie
Hunkpapa Sioux tribe leader who led the resistance against Colonel Custer's army. Refused to sign Treaty of Fort Laramie Sitting Bull
US Colonel that reported gold on Black Hills, fought against Sioux and Cheyenne tribes where tribes surrendered (his last stand) George A. Custer
US attempt to assimilate ("Americanize") natives. Broke up reservations and gave some land to natives and rest to settlers Dawes Act
A massacre of the natives by the US Seventh Cavalry that brought an end to the native war effort Battle of Wounded Knee
Trail from San Antonio, TX to Kansas that helped ship cattle across plains Chisholm Trail
Agreement passed by Congress that offered 160 acres of free land to any citizen who was head of household, caused people to settle west Homestead Act
African-Americans who moved form post-Reconstruction South to Kansas, many settlers of the Homestead Act Exodusters
Sod home made of blocks/turf from nature (houses in the West) Soddy
Agreement that gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges and support farmers Morril Act
Enormous single-crop farms created by railroad companies and investors to raise more crops, caused farmers to go into debt Bonanza Farms
Starter of Patrons of Husbandry to provide a social outlet and education for isolated farm families Oliver Hudson Kelley
Patrons of Husbandry organization for isolated farm families which tried to fight against railroads Grange
An organization of farmers that taught farmers about having lower debts to railroads Farmers' Alliance
A movement of people on which the People's Party was formed, supported by farmers to help the common man Populism
Monetary system where the government would give citizens gold or silver in exchange for paper currency Bimetallism
Backing of dollars solely with gold, supported by Republicans Gold Standard
Republican Party nomination for president that believed in gold standard William McKinley
Democrat nomination for president backed by Populists William Jennings Bryan
Successfully used steam engine to drill for oil in Pennsylvania, started oil boom that spread west) Edwin L. Drake
Injecting air into molten iron to remove carbon and other impurities Bessemer Process
Pioneer on new industrial frontier when he established first research lab in Menlo Park, NJ Thomas Edison
Invented the typewriter Christopher Scholes
Invented the telephone Alexander Graham Bell
Railroad linking Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean Transcontinental Railroad
Built town for factory workers for manufacturing railroad cars on Illinois prairie George Pullman
Construction company created by stockholders to lay track at two/three times actual cost and gave profits to politicians for bribe Credit Mobilier
Court case where states won right to regulate railroads for benefit of farmers and other consumers Munn v. Illinois
Reestablished right of federal government to supervise railroad activities and establish ICC Interstate Commerce Act
Process in which Carnegie bought out his suppliers in order to control the raw materials and transportation system Vertical Integration
Process in which Carnegie merged with companies creating similar products to control almost the entire steel industry Horizontal Integration
Charles Darwin's theory used by Herburt Spencer to explain evolution of human society Social Darwinism
Standard Oil Company founder that joined with competing companies to rule the market John D. Rockefeller
Made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade between states and other countries Sherman Antitrust Act
Led Cigar Makers' International Union to join with other craft unions Samuel Gompers
Union that focused on collective bargaining between representatives of labor and management to reach agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions American Federation of Labor
Attempted to form industrial union (American Railway Union) Eugene V. Debs
Group of radical unionists and socialists in Chicago only won one major strike victory Industrial Workers of the World
Organizer in woman's labor movement supported the Great Strike and organized United Mine Workers of America Marry Harris Jones
Immigration stations where people to America had to pass inspection to be allowed into New York Ellis Island
West coast immigration station in San Francisco Bay Angel Island
Banned entry to all Chinese into America except students, teachers, merchants, tourists and government officials Chinese Exclusion Act
Japan government agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers into US in exchange for repeal of San Francisco segregation order Gentleman's Agreement
Multifamily urban dwellings; overcrowded and unsanitary Tenements
Transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes Mass Transit
Movement that preached salvation through service to poor Social Gospel Movement
Community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area Settlement houses
One of the most influential members of the Social Gospel Movement; founded Hull House in Chicago Jane Addams
Organized group that controlled activities of a political party in a city Political Machine
Illegal use of political influence for personal gain Graft
Head of Tammany Hall- NYC's powerful Democratic political machine Boss Tweed
The giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected Patronage
Republican president that couldn't convince Congress to support civil service reform Rutherford B. Hayes
President and reformer was assassinated James A. Garfield
Garfield's vice-president that led reforms after the death of Garfield Chester A. Arthur
Authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates performance on exam Pendleton Civil Service Act
President that tried to lower tariff rates but Congress refused to support him Grover Cleveland
President signed McKinley Tariff Act that raised tariffs on manufactured goods Benjamin Harisson
Architect that designed Wainwright Building that became the new breed of skyscraper Louis Sullivan
Designed Flatiron Building Daniel Burnham
Landscape architect headed movement for planned urban parks Frederick Law Olmsted
Developed series of more convenient film for cameras; introduced Kodak camera George Eastman
African-American educator that believed racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society; headed Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute Booker T. Washington
School aimed to equip African-Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
First African-American to receive doctorate from Harvard; founded Niagara Movement, disagreed with Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois
Movement that insisted that blacks should seek liberal arts education to achieve equality Niagara Movement
Annual tax that had to be paid before qualifying to vote Poll Tax
Even if a man failed the literacy test/ couldn't afford poll tax, he was still entitled to vote if father/grandfather was eligible to vote before 1867 (before freed slaves could vote) Grandfather Clause
Segregation laws in Southern states Jim Crow Laws
Supreme Court case that ruled that separation of races in public was legal and didn't violate 14th Amendment if all groups received equal facilities Plessy v. Ferguson
System that bound laborers into slavery to work off debt to employer Debt peonage
Pioneered popular newspaper innovations: Sunday edition, comics, sports coverage, woman's news Joseph Pulitzer
Owned newspaper that tried to outdo Pulitzer's by filling it with exaggerated tales William Randolph Hearst
Art school led by Eakin's student Robert Henri Ashcan School
Post Office system that brought packages directly to every home Rural Free Delivery
Movement aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life Progressive Movement
Became advocate for improving the lives of women and children, helped pass Illinois Factory Act Florence Kelley
Journalists that wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulating magazines Muckrakers
Served 3 terms as governor of Wisconsin, became US Senator, taxed railroad at same rate as other businesses, set up commission, forbade free passes to state officials to regulate big business Robert M. La Follette
Bill originated by the people Initiative
Vote on the initiative Referendum
Enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election Recall
Made direction election of Senators law 17th Amendment
All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States amendment 14th Amendment
Right to vote for citizens amendment 15th Amendment
Prohibition Amendment 18th Amendment
Right to vote for women amendment 19th Amendment
Income Tax Amendment 16th Amendment
NACW helped educate colored children National Association of Colored Women
Leader of woman suffrage founded NWSA Susan B. Anthony
NAWSA started by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton for women suffrage National American Woman Suffrage Association
Muckraking journalist that wrote The Jungle Upton Sinclair
Various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt administration Square Deal
Roosevelt's act that dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created federal meat inspection Meat Inspection Act
Halted sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling Pure Food and Drug Act
Some wilderness areas would be preserved while others would be developed for the common good Conservation
NAACP aimed for equality among races National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Act that made it illegal for railroads to give and for shippers to receive rebates for using particular railroads Elkins Act
Act limited distribution of free railroad passes, gave ICC power to set max railroad rates Hepburn Act
Head of US Forest Service believed wilderness areas could be scientifically managed to yield public enjoyment while allowing private development Gifford Pinchot
Secretary of war picked by Roosevelt to run against William Jennings Bryan for president William Howard Taft
Compromise that moderated high rates of Aldrich Bill signed by Taft Payne Aldrich Tariff
New name of Progressive Party Bull Moose Party
Democrat candidate for president against Taft and Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson
NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt
Act sought to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act; prohibited corporations form acquiring the stock of another to create a monopoly Clayton Antitrust Act
Had power to investigate possible violations of regulatory statutes, require reports from corporations, put end to unfair business practices Federal Trade Commission
70% of nation's banking resources served as basis of nation's banking system Federal Reserve System
Admiral of US Navy urged gov officials to build up US naval power to compete with other nations Alfred T. Mahan
Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson arranged for US to buy Alaska from Russia William Seward
US base for refueling station for US ships in Hawaii Pearl Harbor
Headed government in Hawaii and refused to give up power Sanford B. Dole
Led revolt in Cuba used guerrilla campaign Jose Marti
Sent to Cuba from Spain to restore order in Cuba, put people in concentration camps General Valeriano Weyler
Gave command to open fore on Spanish at Manila in Philippines Commodore George Dewey
Blockaded Cuba and Spanish fleet in Cuba William T. Sampson
Signed to end Spanish-American War, gave Cuba freedom, gave Puerto Rico and Guam to US and Philippines were sold to US for $20 million Treaty of Paris
Ended military rule and set up civil government in Puerto Rico Foraker Act
Amendment to Cuba constitution to deal with how Cuba would associate with US Platt Amendment
Country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power Protectorate
Believed US had promised Filipino independence, fought in Philippine-American War Emilio Aguinaldo
US Secretary of State issued Open Door notes John Hay
Letters addressed to leaders of imperialist nations proposing that nations share trading rights with US Open Door Notes
fight in China where imperialist nations fought Chinese who wanted to get rid of foreigners Boxer Rebellion
Added to Monroe Doctrine said US would use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America Roosevelt Corollary
Policy of using US gov to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by US businesspeople Dollar Diplomacy
Mexican rebel leaders who opposed Carranza's provisional government Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Emiliano Zapata
Ordered to capture Villa by US and failed John J Pershing
Created by: nasm95