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Part II Gen. Dx <>

Part II General Dx <>

What does a viral infection do to body temperature? Causes spikes of fever and chills.
What does a bacterial infection do to body temperature? Steady high temp.
What is Icterus? An AKA for jaundice.
If a patients eyeballs appear opaque and there is not red light reflex, what condition is this? Cataracts
Bilateral optic disc swelling is indicative of what condition? Papilledema, caused by intracranial pressure.
This condition is a painless gradual accumulation of intra-ocular pressure that leads to loss of vision and shows an increased cup to disc ratio. Open angle glaucoma. (90% of glaucomas) Shining a light through the end does NOT create a shadow.
This condition is a painful sudden onset of intraocular pressure that has an increased cup to disc ratio and is a medical emergency. Closed angle glaucoma. Shining a light through the eye DOES create a shadow.
What is arcus senilis and what is its significance? An opaque ring around the cornea. Frequent in elderly and clinically insignificant.
This eye condition is known to show waxy exdates and microaneurisyms on fundoscopic exam. Diabetic retinopathy
A fundoscopic exam finding of cotton wool sports or copper wire appearance is indicative of what condition? Hypertension and associated diabetes.
Name the 3 most common reasons for conduction hearing loss. Cerumen build up, infection, otosclerosis.
Name the 2 most common reasons for sensory-neural hearing loss. Neuroma and prebycusis (age-related hearing loss)
Swimmer's ear is a common term for this ear condition. Otitis externa
A retracted tympanic membrane may indicate what condition? Acute serous otitis
A red budgling tympanic membrane may indicate what condition? Acute suppurative or infected otitis
When lymph nodes are non tender and non mobile, what condition must be ruled out? Lymphatic cancer.
Virchow's nodes (hard left supraclavicular lymphatic nodules) often indicates what condition? And what is in AKA for virchow's nodes? Gastric cancer. Troisier's sign.
T-4 syndrome is associated with cold hands, what is T-10 syndrome associated with? Pancreatitis.
what condition is known for having skip lesions, rectal bleeding, and presents with string sign on barium x ray? Crohn's.
This condition is known to start in the distal colon and move proximal. It is associated with mega colon, and bloody diarrhea. It is also associated with "lead pipe sign" Ulcerative colitis.
Early bowel obstruction does what to bowel sounds? Caused increased bowel sounds.
Late bowel obstruction does what to bowel sounds? Caused decreased bowel sounds.
Name the only liver condition that causes tenderness. Acute hepatitis.
Name the only liver condition which presents with a potentially shrunken liver, but could also cause it to swell as well. cirrhosis
Hepatitis causes a boggy liver. What 2 conditions cause a hard liver? Cirrhosis and cancer.
What type of liver dysfunction is associated with IgM, shows decreased WBCs on a blood lab? Acute hepatitis A or B.
what type of liver dysfunction is associated with IgG and shows normal or elevated WBCs on a blood lab? Chronic hepatitis.
Dull sounding percussion is due to fluid, and causes increase femitus Name 4 conditions that could cause such percussion. Pneumonia, pulmonary edema, Massive pleural effusion, congestive heart failure.
Hyper-resonant percussion is caused by the presence of air and causes decrease fremitus. Name 3 conditions that could cause that percussion. COPD, emphysema, pneumothorax
What is the respiratory finding of stridor? A high-pitched wheezing due to airway obstruction
What is pectoriloquy? Whispered 99
What is bronchophony? Spoken 99
What is egophany? EEEEE -> AAAAAA
Prolonged expiration a characteristic on what type of respiratory condition? COPD
What kidney condition is associated with RBC casts in the urine? Glomerulonephritis
What kidney condition is associated with WBC and waxy casts in the urine? Pyelonephritis
Hemorrhoids above the pectinate line are called? Internal hemorrhoids
Define hypospadias Male genital defect on ventral surface
Define epispadias Male genital defect on doral surface
How does a hydrocele in the male groin differ from a scrotal hernia in regards to transillumination? The hydrocele WILL allow light to pass through, the hernia will not.
What is a seminoma? What it the prognosis? A germ cell tumor it the testis. 95% survival rate.
What is a varicocele? An enlargement of scrotal veins. An enlargement of scrotal veins. "Bag of worms"
Describe testicular torsion. How does Prehn's sign help DDX it? Twisting of spermatic cord injures testicle. Prehn's sign (lifting of the testicle) that relieves pain is epididymitis. No relief points towards testicular torsion.
This sign lifts the testicle and a positive result relieves pain. What is the probably diagnosis? Prehn's sign. Epididymitis.
What is cryptochism? A non descended testicle.
What is the most common hernia type for a woman? An older male? A young male? Woman = femoral. Older male = direct inguinal. Younger male = indirect inguinal.
What type of prostate disorder is associated with painful ejaculation? chronic prostatitis.
How does benign prstatic hypertrophy differ from cancer on palpation? BHP is large, smooth and has lateral lobes. Cancer is nodular and has posterior lobes.
what is the name of the condition in which the anterior vaginal wall is weakened due to a bladder issue, and presents with an anterior bulging? Cystocele.
What is the name of the condition in which a female's rectum protrudes into the posterior wall of the vagina? Rectocele
Name the 4 pelvic shapes. Android. Gynocoid. Anthropoid. Platypoid.
What is mastitis? What organisms cause it? Inflammation of breast tissue. Primarily staph. But could be strep.
Name the condition in which a female presents with multiple tender nodules that regress after each menstral cycle. Fibrocystic disease.
Define the cardiac acronym ARMS PRTS. Aortic regurgitation = Mitral stenosis. Pulmonary Regurgitation = Tricuspid stenosis.
Which part of the stethoscope is used for listening to low pitched sounds and stenosis? the bell.
Which part of the stethoscope is used for listening to high pitched sounds and regurgitations? The diaphragm.
What is cor pulmonale? Right sided heart failure.
Pitting edema and varices are associated with which side of heart failure? Right sided.
Congestive heart failure i associated with which side of the heart? Left side.
Name the primary cause of CHF. Systemic hypertension.
AKA for blood pressure sounds. Sounds of Korotkoff.
What is the most common bacterial agent causing endocarditis? (SBE) strep
What does an echocardiogram evaluate? Chamber size and fluid movement.
Diabetes insipidus is caused by what? Decrease ADH from posterior pituitary.
Diabets Mellitus is caused by? Decreased Insulin from pancreas or resistance to insulin.
Kassmaul breathing is associated with what condition? Diabetic acidosis.
What is the physiology of Addison's Dx? Hypocortisol from adrenal cortex.
What is the physiology of Cushing's Dx? Hypercortisol.
What does aldosterone do? Save sodium, secrete potassium.
Describe thyroid hormones 3/4. Where are they created, released? T4 is released into blood stream at 20/1 ration in comparison to T3. T3 is more potent and is also made when T4 reaches cells and reacts.
What is the disease of HYPER thyroid? Hypo? Graves Dx is hyper. Myxedema is hypo.
How many RBCs are in the average person? What is their lifespan? 4.5-6 million. 120 days.
Define Mean Corpuscular Volume The average size of RBCs.
Define Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Average mass of hemoglobin per RBC.
Define Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration It is the concentration of hemoglobin in any given volume of a blood sample.
never let monkeys eat bananas. because very chronic allergies hurt. boom.
What WBC is associated with bacterial infection? Neutrophils
What WBC is associated with viral infection? What happens to the numbers of this WBC? Lymphocytes. the numbers go down to fighting the infection.
What WBC is associated with chronic infection? Monocytes.
What WBC is associated with allergies? IgE for allergies.
What WBC is associated with heavy metal toxicity and polycythemia? basophils.
What are the most common causes of macrocytic anemia? B9 or B12 deficiency.
What are the most common causes of microcytic anemia? Iron deficiency or chronic hemorrhage.
What condition shows a reversed A/G ratio on blood lab? multiple myeloma.
Altered levels of alpha feto protein in a pregnant woman's blood labmay indicat what type of developmental condition? Neural tube defects.
HLA B27 is associated with which conditions? Use the acronym "U CRAP E" "you crappy" ulcerative colitis, crohn's, reiter's, AS,PA, Enteropathic arthritis
What does diabetes mellitus do to specific gravity of urine? what does insipidus do? Mellitus raises it. Insipidus lowers it.
What does clay colored stool indicate? biliary obstruction.
This Ig (antibody) is released first and is found on B cells, hence, associated with humoral immunity. IgM. (also released first)
This Ig (antibody)is found in tears, saliva, and breast milk. IgA. (also released second)
This Ig antibody) activates basophils and mast cells. IgD.
This Ig (antibody) is the only one which crosses the placenta. IgG
This Ig (antibody)is associated with allergies. IgE
Thiamine (b1) deficiency beri beri
Riboflavin (b2) deficiency cheilosis (fissures in corners of mouth)
Niacin (b3) deficiency pellagra
Pentothenic acid (B5) is used to makes what important biomolecule? Coenzyme A
Biotin (B6) deficiency Seborrhoeic dermatitis or neurological conditions
Folic Acid (B9) deficiency neural tube defects, macrocytic anemia
Cyanocobalamin (B12) deficiency pernicious anemia
Retinol (vitamin A) deficiency night blindness
Cholecalciferol (vitamin d) deficiency ricketts, osteomalacia
Tocopherol, (vitamin E) deficiency Sterility, skin conditions
Quinone (vitamin K) deficiency hemorrhage, lack of clotting
What pathology is chromium associated with? diabetes mellitus
What Vitamins are fat soluble? ADEK
Created by: deleted user