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Micro Final exam rev

Define morphology forms & structures of bacteria cells
Identify the 3 common morphologies of bacteria cocci-spherical/bacilli-rod/spirochetes-helical
Gram staining is based on differences in cell walls
Define aerobic growth with oxygen
Define anerobic growth without oxygen require carbon dioxide for growth
Define capnophilic organism that require increased co2 (5-10%)
Most bacteria grow best at what temp 35-37 degrees C
Identify and define each type of hemolysis gamma - no hemolysis; alpha - incomplete hemolysis w/greenish around the bacteria colonies; beta - complete lysis of red cells; alpha prime - zone of alpha surrounded by beta hemolysis
What defensive mechanisms are used by humans to guard against infection intact skin - mucous membranes, mucous membrane cleansing activity and production of antimicrobial substances, phagocytosis
Define nosocomial healthcare facility acquired infection
Define antigen macromolecules that induce formation of antibodies
Define antibody immunoglobin; protein molecules produced in response to antigens
What biochemical test divides staphylococci into 2 groups coagulase
What are the characteristic gram stain and morphology for staphylococci gram pos cocci in grape-like clusters
What is the principle of catalase testing hydrogen peroxide breakdown into water & oxygen and creates bubbles
Describe the general characteristics of Streptococci catalase-neg; gram-pos cocci in chains
What are the four systems for naming streptococci serogrouping, physiologic properties, hemolytic activity, & common names
Describe the colony morphology & hemolysis for GAS small, translucent, with a large beta hemolytic zone
What is a Zone of Inhibition zone of no growth around antibiotic disk
Describe the colonial morphology and hemolysis of GBS large, flat, creamy, small zone of hemolysis
What are the two important human pathogens in Bacillus species bacillus anthracis and bacillus cereus
Anthrax is caused by bacillus anthracis
What organism have been described as resembling Chinese letters on gram stain corynebacterium spp.
On gram stain, this organism is gram positive, rods with what appears as "holes" doe to what bacillis - holes are spores and spores don't stain
What test can be used to differentiate Listeria from GBS bile-eoculin & catalase test
What organism stains irregularly and appears as "beading" cocci nocardia spp.
Describe the gram and microscopic morphology of Neisseria aerobic gram neg, diplococci in a kidney or coffee bean shape
Describe the specimen transport requirements for N. gonorrhoeae Direct inoculation, nonnutritive transport media, nutritive transport systems (JEMBEC)
What type of culture media might be used to isolate N. gonorrhoeae CHOC, NYC, JEMBEC, ML, & MTM
Describe the colony morphology for N. gonorrhoeae smooth, gray to white, T1&T2 - small & raised; T3,T4&T5 larger and flatter
Identify 3 tests that may be used to assist in the id of gram negative cocci gram stain, oxidase test, carbohydrate utilization, nitrate reduction, & nucleic acid probe
Which Neisseria species uses lactose N. lactomiea
General characteristics of Haemophilus include pleomorphic, gram-neg rods; x, v or both factor, blood loving, hemophilus rapid test, mousy odor
Which strain of Haemophilus has a vaccine to prevent it H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius
What culture conditions are required for Haemophilus capnophilic, increased co2 (5-10%), humidified atmosphere
What Haemophilus has been described as a "school of fish" arrangement H. ducreyi
What growth factors are required for Haemophilus x,v or both factors
This family of organisms is commonly referred to as "enterics" enterobacteriaceae (reduces nitrate to nitrite and oxidase neg)
General characteristics of Enterbacteriaeceae include Gram-neg bacilli with straight sides and rounded ends w/bipolar staining and metabolizes glucose
What culture media can be used for Enterbacteriaeceae BAP, EMB, MAC, XLD, CIN, SS, and HE
Describe each of the four enteric antigens H-on flagella/ O antigen- somatic body, part of cell wall, component of endotoxin/K antigen- capsular/ Vi - capsular in some strains of salmonella / H and K are heat labile
What is the most common Klebsiella isolate K. pneumoniae
Describe the colonies of Klebsiella mucoid, string forming on MAC & EMB
What are two distinguishing characteristics of Proteeae burned chocolate smell and swarming growth pattern
Describe the causative agent of plague Y. pestis
What organism appears as "bull's eye" on CIN agar Y. enterocolitica
Describe 5 different media that may assist in identification of enterics EMB, MAC, SS, HE, XLD
Name 3 specific identification tests for enterics Carb. utilization, ONPG test, H2S production on TSI or KIA
What biochemical reactions can be determined using a KIA tube glucose and lactose fermentation and the production of H2S and gas
Several key characteristics of NFB are no spores & cant breakdown carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions (nonfermenters)
When should you suspect a NFB oxidase-pos, alkaline/nochange reaction in TSI or KIA
What identification tests are useful in identifying NFB isolates oxidative-fermentive (of) test, oxidase test, and growth on mac
Key characteristics of Pseudomonads are growth on MAC, oxidizes glucose, reduces nitrate and oxidase-pos
Colonies of P. aeruginosa appear how large, irregular shape, metalic sheen, mostly produce pyocyanin (blue pigment)
Typical identification results for P. aeruginosa are gram-neg rods, oxidase and pyocyanin pos, alkaline/no change TSI & KIA reaction, and grows @ 42 degree C
How do Acinetobacter colonies appear on MAC colorless to slightly pink
Key id tests results for Acinetobacter include Oxidase-neg, nitrate-neg, catalase-pos, motility-neg
Key characteristics of Moraxella are gram-neg cocci, oxidase-pos, glucose-neg, motility-neg, penicillin-suseptible
Describe the gram stain result and morphology of Vibrio straight to slightly curved gram-neg rods.
How are V. cholerae divided into serogroups "o" or cell wall antigens
Identify 3 id tests that may be used to differentiate Vibrio and Aeromonas Suseptibility, Salt requirement and tolerance test, and String test (0.5% deoxycholate)
Biochemical test results for Vibrio include indole-pos, nitrate-pos, voges proskauer-pos, carb utilization-pos
Describe the gram stain result & morph of H. pylori gram-neg rods, S-shaped
H. pylori is the causative agent of what illness chronic gastritis, peptic and doudenal ulcers
What organism causes whooping cough bordetella pertussis
The preferred specimen for isolating B. pertussis are nasopharyngeal swabs and aspirates
Where is Legionella commonly found lakes, rivers, soil, mud, air conditioning cooling towers
Describe the gram stain result and morph of Legionella faintly staining gram-neg rods
What diseases are caused by Legionella legionaires disease & pontiac fever
What organisms are described as having a "fried egg" appearance streptobacillus
This organism has a "bleachlike" odor eikencella corroidens
Define anaerobic growth in the absence of oxygen o2
Define facultative anaerobe growth in the absence or presence of oxygen
Define obligate anaerobe requires anaerobic conditions oxygen and its derivatives are toxic to them
How are anaerobic bacteria able to survive in the body facultative organisms use up the oxygen in protected areas and reduce the redox potential and inactivate harmful oxygen-based molecules
What causes exogenous diseases organisms from outside the body
What causes endogenous infections organisms inside the body
Anaerobic bacterial infections are suspected when what clues are present an infection near a mucosal surface, foul smelling, or gaseous discharge and necrotic tissue
What 3 anaerobic bacteria are responsible for most human disease bacteroides fragilis group, pigmented prevotella spp., porphyromonas spp., fusobacterium nucleatum, clostridium perfringens and anaerobic cocci
What id tests are used for anaerobic bacteria growth stimulation test, lecithinase, nagler test, aerotolerance, colony and gram morph, conventional biochemical tube
Describe the gram stain result for Clostridium gram-variable coccoid to filamentous
Where are terminal spores found at one end of the bacterial cells
What infections are caused by C. perfringens bacteremia, cellulitis, intra-abdominal abscesses, female genital tract infections, and myonecrosis (gas gangrene)
Describe the gram stain morph of C. perfringens gram-pos boxed-car shaped rods
Describe the hemolysis pattern of C. perfringens on anaBAP a double zone of beta hemolysis on anaBAP
C. difficile produces what toxins enterotoxin - toxin A cytotoxin - toxin B
What organism causes botulism clostridium botulinum
What actinomycetes most commonly causes disease a. israelii
For direct examination for actinomycetes, what should be examined and for what Pus- for sulfer granules
What is the most commonly isolated bacteroides b. fragilis
Describe the gram stain morph of bacteroides faintly staining gram-neg rods w/round ends
Prevotella are resistant to what antibiotics kanamycin and vancomycin
General characteristics of Mycobacteria include aerobic, non-spore forming, non-motile rods that are usually straight to slightly curved
Why is routine gram stain not recommended for Mycobacteria they stain poorly because their cell wall lipids interfere w/the penetration of crystal violet and safrain into the cell
How is M tuberculosis transmitted inhalation of droplet nuclei
What is the causative agent of leprosy M. leprae
What are the two most common acid fast stains used for mycobacteria carbdfuchsin-based and fluorochrome-based stains
What type of culture media might be used to grow mycobacteria egg-based, agar based, liquid or bifasic culture media
What are the five groups that mycobacteria can be divided into based on rate of growth, colonial morphology and ability to produce pigment rapid or slow growers, colonial morph, photochromogin, scotochromogen, and non photochromogen
What biochemical tests are used in identifying mycobacteria arylsulfatase, catalase, semiquantitative catalase, drop method, iron uptake, special mac, and tellurite reduction
Antimicrobial susceptivility tests should be performed on which mycobacteria growths all initial isolates
Describe the general characteristics of chlamydiae non-motile gram-neg obligate intracellular parasites
How are most chlamydia organisms identified licopolysaccharide & major outer membrane protein (MOMP)
Describe the general appearance of spirochetes long slender spiral shape
What is the causative agent of Lyme disease borrialla dorphri
What type of lab tests are mose often used to diagnose Lyme disease serological