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~Peace 1918-1928

Edexcel A GCSE History - Section 2 - The Peace Settlement 1918-1928

What are the 6 main terms of the Treaty of Versailles? 100,000 men. 6 battleships. No Airforce. £6.6 billion Reparations. Germany accepts full blame of war (article 231). German colonies taken and split among the allies.
Leader of France during this time... Georges Clemenceau
Leader of Britain during this time... David Lloyd George
Leader of USA during this time... Woodrow Wilson
The Treaty of Versailles was signed... 29th June 1919
FRANCE – How badly were they affected by WW1 and how harsh should Germany’s Punishment be? Effected badly so Germany should be punished severely.
BRITAIN – How badly were they affected by WW1 and how harsh should Germany’s Punishment be? Effected badly but punish Germany moderately and fairly.
USA – How badly were they affected by WW1 and how harsh should Germany’s Punishment be? Not badly affected so be generous to Germany to prevent them getting angry and starting another war.
When were Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points first put forward? January 1918
What were Wilson’s 14 points? No secret treaties. Free sea access. Free trade. Disarmament by all. Colonies negotiate their future. German troops leave Russia. Belgium & Poland’s independence. France takes Alsace-Lorraine. Boundary between Italy and Austria. League of Nations.
Explain the German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. (3 main points) They were very bitter about it. They couldn’t afford the reparations, lost many of their colonies and industrial areas which they could not replace, and were angry about being given the whole blame for war.
What problems did the German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles cause for the rest of Europe? Europe couldn’t recover whilst countries like Germany were so poor, self determination became difficult as different nationalities were joined to form new countries, and Germany were angry which would lead to trouble in the future.
Treaty of St Germain! (Date, country affected, terms) 10th Sept 1919. Austria. Separated Austria and Hungary, prevented Anschluss, took away land (e.g. Bosnia), 30,000 volunteers, no navy, and reparations were agreed, but never set.
Treaty of Trianon! (Date, country affected, main points) 4th June 1920. Hungary. Separated Austria and Hungary, Took away land (e.g. Croatia), 200million gold crowns reparations, 3 patrol boats, 35,000 volunteers.
Treaty of Neuilly! (Date, country affected, main points) 27th Nov 1919. Hungary. Denied sea access, Took away some land, 2.25 billion francs reparations, 4 torpedo boats, 20,000 volunteers, no air force.
Treaty of Sevres! (Date, country affected, main points) 10th Aug 1920. Hungary. Separated Austria and Hungary, Took away land (e.g. Rhodes and Smyrna), no reparations, 6 Torpedo boats, 7 sailboats, and 50,000 soldiers.
What happened to the Treaty of Sevres? Turkish Nationalists hated the Treaty and resisted it. In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne was used to replace it which reduced the amount of land lost and scrapped all reparations.
Which country wasn’t punished as harshly after the war and why? Bulgaria because the only played a small part in the war.
What was the main problem in many of the newly formed countries following the peace treaties? They contained lots of people from many different nationalities who spoke different languages. It was difficult to decide which language, what political views, etc to use.
When did the League of Nations first begin to work? January 1920
Originally, how many members were in the League, and how many did it grow to by the 1930’s? Originally: 42 but grew to around 60.
What were the 4 main aims of the League of Nations? Stop Aggression, Encourage Cooperation, Overall Disarmament, Improve living and working conditions.
What were the 6 sections of the League of Nations? The Assembly, the Council, Secretariat, Special Commissions, International Labour Organisation, Permanent Court Of International Justice.
What was the Responsibility of the assembly section of the League of Nations? Met once a year, each country had one vote over a topic. The assembly recommended topics to the Council.
What was the Responsibility of The Council section of the League of Nations? Met 3 times a year, or in an Emergency. Had 5 permanent members; Britain, France, Italy, Japan (and Germany, after 1926). It also had some temporary members)
What was the Responsibility of Secretariat section of the League of Nations? Carried out the work of the League, like a civil service.
What was the Responsibility of Special Commissions section of the League of Nations? Dealt with things like Mandates, Refugees, Slavery, and the Health organisation.
What was the Responsibility of the International Labour Organisation in the League of Nations? Worked to improve overall Working conditions.
What was the Responsibility of the Permanent International Court of Justice in the League of Nations? Decided on many disputes between countries (including border disputes) in an attempt to avoid another war.
Name some initial successes of the League of Nations. settled disputes between; 1921 - Germany and Poland over Upper Silesia. 1921 - Sweden and Finland over the Aaland Islands. 1925 - When Greece invaded Bulgaria. Also, it worked to beat slavery, diseases and refugees.
Why didn’t the USA join the League? Americans disliked the Treaty of Versailles and felt it was connected to the League of Nations. They felt it was too expensive. They focussed on American affairs (isolationism). Had a democracy and didn’t want to help countries without a democracy.
Why was the League of Nations not very powerful? Britain and France were in charge but were still recovering from WW1. It had no army. Economic sanctions had to be forcefully applied.
Created by: UoBathPhysics