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Person who used the first microscope to describe cellular nature of cork (1685) von Leeuwenhoek
1st to describe microorganisms found in pond water ad the human mouth von Leeuwenhoek
Introduced the smallpox vaccine (1796) Jenner Semmelweis
Discovered that washing hands before delivering babies reduced puerperal fever Jenner Semmelweis
AKA the father of bacteriology Pasteur
Person who disproved spontaneous generation by identifying airborne bacteria (1861) Pasteur
Person who developed anthrax vaccine, and preventative treatment for Rabies Pasteur
Developed antisptic surgery using phenol, surgical gloves Lister
Developed acid fast staining for TB Ziehl and Nielsen
Known as father of immunology Ehrlich
Devised first drugs agains bacteria and proposed key-in-lock concept of immunology Ehrlich
Discovered penicillin Fleming
Developed killed virus of poloi vaccine Salk
Developed live vrius, oral polio vaccine Sabin
Kochs main psotulate One microbe, one disease
The 4 ideas in Kochs postulate 1. organism must be observed in every case of the dz 2. the ogranism must be isolated and grown in pure culture 3. organism must cause the dz when injected into an animal 4. organism must be recovered from the experimental animal & confirmed
Procaryotes have no? no nucles and no nuclear membrane
Obligate intracellular parasites and depend on host for ATP production rickettsia
smallest and simplest of the self-replicating procaryotes, and require cholesterol which necessitates their residence within mucous membranes mycoplama
obligate intracellular parasites which contain either RNA or DNA viruses
also known as bacteriophages or phages if they have a bacterial host viruses
Round bacterial shape aka? coccus
rod-like bacterial shape aka? bacillus
spiral bacterial shape aka? spirrila
comma-shaped bacteria aka vibrio
Nucleus of bacteria contains? single-stranded DNA, small amounts of RNA & RNA polymerase
Two types of bacterial cell walls? Gram positive and gram negative
Gram positive cell walls are made up of? thick peptidoglycan
Gram negative cell walls are made up of? Thin peptidoglycan, and lipopolysaccharides (thick)
Lipopolysaccharides are made up of what? LIPID A, AKA endotoxins
The external layer of bacteria called the capsule functions to? protect the bacteria from phagocytosis
the external layer of the bacteria called the glycocalyx is aka? and is associated with what? AKA - slime layer, and is associated with the adhesive properties of the cell
The stages of the bacterial growth curve 1. lag 2. log 3. stationary 4. death
LAG phase Inital : the metabolite starved bacteria begin to adapt to their new environment
LOG phase AKA Exponential: the cells are dividing and at a constant, exponential rate
STATIONARY phase the cells exhaust essential nutrients or accumulate toxic products
DEATH phase cells begin to die due to toxic end products
Facultative anaerobes will grow how? and are the most what? will grow in the presence of absence of oxygen, and are the most pathogenic bacteria
What temperatures do phychrophiles grow? range of 0-20 degrees C
What temps do mesophiles grow? Range of 20-45 degrees C, and are the medically important bacteria
What temps do thermophiles grow? range from 45-90 degrees C
Saprophytes live off of? lives on dead organic matter
What grows on a blood agar plate? Steptococcus (gram staining)
What grows on mannitol salt agar? Staphylococcus (gram staining)
What grows on thayer Martin/chocolate agar? neisseria
What grows on Acid Fast Stain/Ziehl Nielsen? Mycobacterium
What grows on Sabourad? Fungi
What grows on MacConkey's Agar? Escheria Coli
What grows on Gimesa Stain? Protozoans
Sterility is? total absence of viable microorganism as assed by no growth on any medium
Bacteriocidal inhibits growth of bacteria
Sterilization removal or killing of all microorgranisms
Best type of sterizilation autoclave 121*C High pressure
disinfection removal or killing of disease-causing microogranisms, like pastuerization
sepsis infection
aseptic without infection
antisepsis any procedure that inhibits the growth or multiplication of microogranisms
exotoxins are released by which type of organisms? gram pos and gram neg
exotoxins are released by what? and are composed of? and have a ____ to target cells Exotoxins are released by the organism, made of proteins, very potent yet labile (sensitive to heat), and have a high specifity for target cells.
examples of exotoxins clostridium tetani (tetanus) clostridium botulinum (botulism) corynebacterium diphteriae (diphtheria)
Endoxtoxins are produced by which type of organisms gram negative only!
Endotoxins are released when? They are made of? And have _____ to target cells Endotoxins are not released until the cell dies, made up of lipopolysaccharides, less potent than exotoxins but stable to heat and have a low specificity to target cells
Examples of endotoxins e. coli vibrio cholerae salmonella
What is transformation? is the DIRECT UPTAKE of naked DNA fragments thru the cell wall.
Natural occurrence of transformation is ___? Rare
What is transduction? is PHAGE-MEDIATED(bacterial virus) transfer of host DNA sequences.
What is conjugation? one-way transfer of genetic material (plamids) by means of physical contact.
What is the primary stain of gram staining? Crystal violey dye, which stains all cells blue
What is the mordant, or fixer applied when gram staining? Iodine
What is the order of the gram staining procedure 1. Apply crystal violey dye = all cells stain blue 2. add iodine - cells remain blue 3. add acetone, or alcohol to decolorize 4.add safranin, stains decolorized grams
What does adding alcohol or acetone to the gram staining procedure do? (and specifics for gram neg and gram pos) Decolorizes, gram positive stays blue, and gram negative is colorless.
What does safranin do in the gram staining procedure, and specifics for gram neg and pos? Safranin stains the decolorized gram: Gram negative = red, gram positive = blue.
What color does gram negative stain? Red
What color does gram positive stain? Blue
What color does acid fast stain? Red
What color does non-acid fast stain? Blue
What organisms stain red with acid fast staining? Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium leprae.
What chemical stains in Ziehl & Nielsen's Acid Fast Stain? Carbolfuchsin
What is the decolorizer in Ziehl & Nielsen's Acid fast stain? Acid-Alcohol
What is the name of the counterstainer in Ziehl & Nielsen's acid fast stain? Loeffler's New Methylene Blue
What are two examples of gram positive cocci? Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus
What are four examples of gram positive Bacilli (rod-shaped)? Mycobacteria, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Clostridium
What is an exmaple of a gram negative Cocci? Neisseria
Name 6 gram negative Bacilli? Vibrio, haemophilus, bordetella, pseudomonas, legionella, brucella.
Name 5 gram negative Bacilli or the GI tract? Eschericha, Klebsiella, Proteus, Shigella, Salmonella
What causes major problems in hospitals, in compromised patients with debititating diseases, extensive surgery, immunosuppresion or malnourishment? Called Hospital _____. Staphylococci, called Hospital Staph
Which gram positive cocci forms grape-like clusters? Staphylococci.
What produces Exfoliative Toxin, which is responsible for scalded-scalp syndrome? Staphylococcus aureus
What produces enterotoxin which is involved with food poisoning? Staphylococcus aureus
What produces pyrogenic toxins, responsible for toxic shock syndrome? staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococci grows on what medium? Mannitol-salt agar and blood agar
What causes Acute Bacterial Endocarditis (ABE)? Staphylococcus aureus
What causes UTIs & skin infections? Staphylococcus epidermidis
What causes UTIs alone? Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What produces deep yellow colonies when grown on Blood agar? Staph. Aureus
What is usually identified by an ABCESS with a central necrotic core of neutrophils, pus, & bacteria? Staph Aureus
Staph Aureus causes what on the eye? Conjunctivitis, styes
What does Staph aureus cause in the lungs? Pneumonia
What does staph aureus cause in bones? osteomyelitis
What does staph aureus cause in the heart? Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
What does Scaled Skin Syndrome do, & what causes it? Causes the denudation of the skin due to exfoliative toxin produced by staph aureus
Who is scaled skin syndrome prevalent in? Prevalent in kids under 4
What does toxic shock syndrome do, and what is the cause? Toxic shock syndrome causes high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, collapse of peripheral circulation, hypotensive shock, rash, and desquamation of the skin. It it caused by pyrogenic toxins, made by staph aureus
What are the symptoms of food poisioning and what causes it? Food poisoning occurs 4-6 hours after eating with acute vomiting with NO fever. It is self limited within 24 hrs - no TX needed. It is caused by enterotoxin by staph aureus.
Staph epidermidis causes UTIs in which age group? Elderly
S. Saprophyticus causes UTIs in which age group? Adolescent girls
What group of Stretococci is characterized by incomplete lysis with green pigment surrounding the colony? Alpha-hemolytic group
What group of Streptococci is characterized by Total lysis & a clear area around the colony? Beta-hemolytic group
What group of Streptococci is characterized by an absence of lysis? Gamma-hemolytic group
Group A Streptococci are characterized by what type of streptococcus and hemolytic group? Group A is characterized by Streptococcus pyogenes, and are beta hemolytic
What contains M proteins, and what do M proteins do? Group A streptococci contain M proteins, which are a potent virulence factor found on fimbriae which inhibit phagocytosis.
What does Group A Streptococci produce? They produce Streptolysin S (responsible for beta hemolysis) & Stretolysin O (leukocidal).
What does streptolysin S do? Produced by Group A Strept, it causes beta hemolysis.
What is the origin of ASO titre? The origin of ASO titre is Streptolysin S & O
ASO titre is used in the diagnosis of what? of rheumatic fever caused by Group A (S. pyogenes)
What do Group A streptococci secrete, causing what disease? Group A streptococci secrete Erythrogenic endotoxins which are responsible for Scarlet Fever.
What test tests for scarlet fever? Tests for erythrogenic exotoxins - the Dick Test - "My Scarlet Dick"
What 8 diseases does Group A Strept (S. pyogenes) causes? Pharyngitis (strep throat), Scarlet Fever, Impetigo (S. aureus also causes it), Cellulitis, erysipelas, Rheumatic Fever (results in mitral stenosis), Acute Glomerular Nephritis, & Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
What organism characterizes Group B Streptococci, and are they alpha or beta hemolytic? Characterized by Streptococcus agalactiae, and are beta hemolytic.
Group B Streptococci (S. agalactiae) are part of what? Are part of normal oral & vaginal flora.
What three organisms make up Viridans Streptococci & are they alpha or beta hemolytic? Viridans streptococci are characterized by S. Viridans, S. salavarius, & S. Mutans. They are alpha hemolytic.
What causes subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE)? Strep viridans
What causes dental caries? Strep mutans
What was streptococcus pneumoniae formely known as? Diplococcus pneumoniae, due to its morophology.
Is streptococcus pneumoniae alpha hemolytic or beta hemolytic? Alpha!
What are the two diseases associated with streptococcus pneumoniae? Lobar pneumonia and otitis media
What is the reason for streptococcus pneumoniae's virulence? It's capsule
What is the test called for visualizing streptococcus pneumoniae's capsule? Quellung Reaction/ Quellung Test
What do mycobacteria stimulate? Stimulate cell-mediated or delayed hypersensitivity (Type IV) reaction.
What causes clinical tuberulosis? Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis
How does one become infected with TB? Thru droplet inhalation or contaminated food.
What is a Ghon Complex? In TB, it is a lesion in the lung & a lesion in regional lymph node
What are the Tine test & the Mantoux test used for? TB
If one has TB spread thru the blood what is it called? Miliary TB
What causes Leprosy ? Mycobacterium leprae
What is another name for leprosy? Hansen's dz
Where is Mycobacertium leprae found? Footpads of mice and armadillos
Leprosy is an infection of what? Infection of nerve cells (PNS)
What is Tuberculoid Leprosy? If healthy with Leprosy, only one to 3 cutaneous lesions containing few organisms
What is Lepromatous Leprosy? If one is unhealthy with leprosy, multiple nodular skin lesions loaded with organisms
What is the skin test for TB? PPD (Purified Protein Derivative)
How does one diagnose leprosy? by clinical sx and cytology, not by culture.
What is the skin test for leprosy? Lepromin skin test
What type of diseases do Bacillus cause? Zoonotic diseases via cattle, sheep, and goats (ruminants)
How do Bacillus transmit disease? Via spores, which can live in the soil for 30 years
What does Bacillus anthracis produce? A very potent exotoxin!
What does Bacillus anthracis result in? CNS distress, respiratory failure & anoxia. Death occurs within 2-5 days.
What is the % rate, entrance of disease, and fatality rate of cutaneous anthrax? Cutaneous Anthrax: 95% of cases, spores enter from cuts of abrasions, fatality rate is 10%
What is the % rate, entrance of the disease, and fatality rate of pulmonary anthrax? Pulmonary Anthrax: 5% of cases, spores enther lungs via breathing, fatality rate is 50%.
What is Wool Sorter's Disease? Pulmonary anthrax
What does Bacillus cereus cause & what does it produce Causes gastroenteritis (food posioning), and produces an enterotoxin
What are the sx of Bacillus cereus? Either emetic (naseua, vomiting), or diarrheal (ab pain, watery stools).
What organism shows "chinese-character" formation on gram stain & Babes-Ernst bodies (metachromatic granules) upon microscopy? Corynebacterium diphtheriae ( Corny Babes with Chinese Faces)
What is the important corynebacterium species? corynebacterium diphteriae
Corynebacterium diphteriae causes Diptheria via what? a very potent exotoxin
Corynebacterium diphteriae causes Diptheria in primarily who? Primarily in infants & young kids
How is the Diptheria vaccine made? Made by formalin-inactivation resulting in a Toxoid
What does Corynebacterium diphteriae cause? It causes Pharyngeal diphteria.
What leads to a characteristic "bull neck" appearance due to edema of cervical lymph nodes (which obstructs breathing) Pharyngeal Diptheria - caused by corynebacterium diptheriae
Pharyngeal diphteria begins as what? As a mild pharyngitis
In Pharyngeal diphtheria what forms, what is it made of, and where does it adhere? A pseudomembrane forms - made of fibrin, epitherlial cells, PMNs, & bacteria. Memebrane is gray and adherent and grows across tonsillar area of the oropharnyx.
Pharyngeal diphtheria is associated with tissue damage to what? To the heart and nervous system (motor defects, paralysis of throat and polyneuritis of LE)
What is the Schick Test? a test used to determine the immune status of one after the DPT vaccine has been used. It consists of inradermal injections of diphtheria toxin in a heated and unheated state
What does Clostridium perfringes cause? Clostridium perfringes causes myonecrosis (gas gangrene - creating gas, edema, and impaired circulation)
Is Clostridium an aerobe or an anaerobe? Clostridium is an anaerobe
Where is Clostridium found? Unbiquitous soil organisms
How does clostridium cause pathologies? Via pre-formed toxins or toxins released at site of infection
Clostridium is infective by what? By spores
What is the tx for clostridiums? Anitotxin, antibiotics, surgery to necrotic tissue, hyperbaric oxygen therapy
What does Clostridium botulinum cause? Food poisoning (18-36 hours after eating, usually canned food)
What is ingested in Clostridium botulinum? a pre-formed toxin in food, Neurotoxin
What are some sx of C. Botulinum? nausea, vomiting, cranial palsy, double vision, swealling and speech problems, respiratory paralysis and death (20%)
What does C. Botulinum do at the myoneural junction? The exotoxin works to produce flaccid paralysis due to supression of ACH release
Clostridium tetani causes what, how? Clostridium tetani causes tetanus by minor laceration, puncture or unbilical cord stump infection.
is Tetanus an endotoxin or exotoxin? Exotoxin
What does the exotoxin of tetanus act at? The exotoxin of tetanus acts at the brain stem or anterior horn to obliterate the inhibitory reflex response, resulting in uncontrolled impulses
What does the toxin of tetanus inhibit? Toxin of tetanus inhibits the release of acetylcholinesterase, therefore ach is not broken down @ the neuromuscular junction
What is trismus? Trismus is seen in tetanus and is tetanospasms of lockjaw
What are the manifestations of tetanus? Muscle stiffness, tetanospasms of lockjaw (trismus), and back arching
Why does death occur from tetanus? Occurs from exhaustion or respirtory failure
What is the main tx of tetanus? antitoxin
What does Clostridium difficle cause? Causes severe gastroenteritis, with circulatory collapse and death in 30% of cases.
What does deoxyribonuclease in a medium inhibit? inhibits transformation
What has negri bodies? Rabies
What is coagulase positive? Staph aureus
Peritrichous is a pattern of ____________. Flagella
What disease is associated with mononucleosis? Epstein Barr
The best medium to identify Neisseria gonorrhea is? Thayer Martin Agar (chocolate agar)
What cell type contains heparin? Basophils
What does Necator americans cause? Hookworm disease
What does enterohius vermicularis cause? pinworm disease
What does Ascariasis lumbricoides cause? Round Worms
What does Borrelia burgdorferi cause? Lymes disease
What causes infant diarrhea in hospital nurseries? E coli
Plasmodium falciparum causes what? Blackwater fever
_____ causes childhood dysentery Coxsackie Virus B
Which genera usually causes allergic reactions? Aspergillus
Blue green pus in a wound indicates the presence of what? Pseudomonas aeriginosa
What is the most common organism to affect a pt with AIDS? Pneumocyststic carinii
Vitamin B12 deficiency often results from which worm infection? Diphyllobothrium latum
What is the purpose of pasteurization? To stop the growth of bacteria
What cell type increases when a parasitic infection is present? Eosinophils
What is associated with Koplik spots? Rubella
Onchocerca is a cause of what? River blindness
What is the virus that causes Gengivostomatitis? Herpes simplex I
How is Hep A transmitted? Ingestion
Candida Albicans causes what? Thrush
Pilus is an important structure involved in what process? Conjugation
In what phase do bacteria divide at a constant rate? Log phase
Is Neisseria a gram positive or gram negative diplococci? Neisseria is a gram negative diplococci
Repeated infection of Neisseria gonorrheae leads to what in both sexes? Sterility
What is ophthalmia neonatorum, and what causes it? Infantile eye infection contracted during passage thru the birth canal, which leads to conjunctivitis and then blindness. It is caused by Neisseria gonorrheae
What causes urethritis, characterized by thick, yellow purulent exudate containing bacteria & PMNs, and painful urination Neisseria gonorrhea
What is a treatment for Neisseria gonorrheae? If resistent to penicillin, use spectinomycin (erythromycin)
What causes meningococcemia in primarly 6 month to 2 year olds Neisseria meningitidis
What is waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome? Is meningiococcemia with hemorrhage, circulatory failure, and adrenal insufficiency
These are the initial signs of what? : fever, vomiting, headache, and stiff neck. It begins is as a mild pharyngitis and can be fatal in 1-5 days Neisseria meningitidis
What causes Travelers diarrhea? E. Coli
Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Shigella are all part of what family? And what two major pathologies do they cause? The enterobacteriaceae family, the enterics. The two major pathologies they cause are nosocomial (hospital aquired) and gi infections
Results of infection include CNVIII deafness or CNS damage in what bacteria? Neisseria meningitidis
What does E. Coli ferment? Lactose
What Klebsiella cause? cause pneumonia and UTIs (red currant jelly sputum)
What causes red currant jelly sputum? Klebsiella
What does Proteus cause? Causes pneumonia, UTIs, and bacteremia
Why is proteus highly motile? Numerous flagella
How is Shigella sonnei transmitted and what does it cause? Transmitted by poor sanitation: fingers, feces, food, flies. It causes shigellosis (bacilliary dysentery)
What causes typhoid fever? Salmonella typhi
What type of species cause septicemia? Salmonella
Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella typhimurium cause what? They cause gastroenteritis or food poisoning
What are sources of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium that cause gastroenteritis or food poisoning? Poultry, poultry products, food handlers, and exotic pets.
How is typhoid fever trasmitted? Through contaminated food or water
In what bacterial infection are characterisitc rash "Rose spots" on the skin found? Found in Typhoid Fever "Typhoid Rosi"
With Typhoid fever, 3% of people become carriers due to what? Due to retention of salmonella typhi in the gall bladder, and peyers patches of the intestines
What is the most common origin of septicemia, and what bacteria causes it? Septicemia is most commonly nosocomial in origin, from catheterization, contaminated IV fluids, abdominarl or pelvic surgery. It is caused by Salmonella.
What causes Cholera? Vibrio cholerae causes Cholera
Rice-water stools are due to what disease? Cholera - caused by vibrio cholera
How is cholera transmitted? contaminated water or food
What symptoms does cholera lead to? Intense vomiting & diarrhea. Remission or death occurs within 2-3 days
What bacterial infection results in copious fluid loss (15-20 liters per day), and results in metabolic acidiosis & hypovolemic shock? Cholera - due to vibrio cholera
Cholera is an endemic where? India & Bangladesh
What is the treatment for Cholera? Prompt replacement of fluids and electrolytes reduces fatality rate from 60% to 1%
Haemophilus influenzae causes what? Upper respiratory tract infections that may proceed to acute bacterial meningitis
Haemophilus aegyptius causes what? Bacterial conjunctivitis (pink-eye)
Haemophilus ducreyi causes what? Causes a sexually transmitted genital tract infection (painful).
What causes acute bacterial meningitis and is found mostly in who? Haemophilus influenzae, in children 3 months to 6 years
What does acute bacterial meningitis lead to? CNS deficits - hydrocephalus and mental retardation.
What do chronic infections of acute bacterial meningitis lead to? Otitis media and sinusitis
What causes bacterial conjunctivitis (pinkeye) and how is it transmitted? It is caused by haemophilus aegyptius, and is transmitted by hands, gnats, or inanimate objects.
How is bacterial conjunctivitis different than viral? Bacterial is purulent in nature, whereas viral has no pus
What does Haemophilus ducreyi cause and what are the sx? Causes genital tract infections, and the sx are soft, painful chancres
What does Bordella cause? Pertussis (whooping cough), by bordella pertussis
Who does pertussis predominantly occur in? Children under age 1
A paroxysmal cough (sudden and severe), forced hacking coughs, resulting in anoxia and vomiting occurs in what? Pertussis (due to bordella pertussis)
What are the three different outcomes of a Pertussis infection? 1/3: recover 1/3: develop neurological problems 1/3: result in severe coma, convulsions, blindness, or paralysis
Are pseudomonas gram positive or gram negative? They are gram negative rods
What do pseudomonas create which make phagocytosis difficult? a slime layer
Blue-green pus is a classic sign of what? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What wound infection often produces a sweet, grape like odor? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What is common in the presence of neutropenia, prolonged antibiotic use, severe burns, cystic fibrosis and trauma? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common contaminant of what in hospitals? P. aeruginosa is a common contaminant of respiratory therapy fluids in hospitals.
What produces fluorescein and pyocyanin pigments? P. aeruginosa (fluorescein = green, fluorescent, pyocyanin = blue-green)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic ____ in the elderly? UTI
Legionella is a ____ _____ parasite LEgionella is a facultative intracellular parasite
What bacteria lives in air-conditioning cooling towers? Legionella
What causes Legionnaires' Disease Legionella pneumophila
Who is legionnaries' dz most common in? Most common in smokers, transplant recipients, and those with chronic lung dz
How is legionnaires dz acquired? It is acquired by inhalation of the organisms ( l. pneumophila)
What disease results in abrupt onset of fever, chills, cough, headaches, and mental confusion ultimately resulting in severe pneumonia? Legionnaires dz (l. pneumophila)
What type of diseases does Brucella cause? zoonotic diseases
Where is Brucella found? often in livestock farmers and meat processors, from contaminated milk and cheese.
Brucellosis is caused by what three organisms Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella abortus
What does Brucellosis cause in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes? Granulomas
With Brucellosis where does intracellular multiplication occur? Intracellular multiplication occurs in the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system
What are some sx of acute brucellosis? Acute brucellosis: relapses of fever, muscle weakness, chills, anorexia, aches
What are some sx of chronic brucellosis? weakness, depression, ARTHRALGIAS lasting over 12 months
What type of diseases does leptospira cause? Leptospira causes zoonotic dz
What is the vector of leptospira? urine of wild rodents and domestic animals
How is leptospira transmitted? Trasmitted thru mucous membranes or broken skin
Where does leptospira localize once in the body? Localizes to the kidney, liver, or CNS
What does leptospira interrogans or leptospira ictohemorrhagica cause? These cause Weil's Disease (Leptospirosis) (spiral of wheels)
How many phases are there to Weil's disease and what are they? There are two phases of Weil's disease: Acute icteric stage followed by chronic stage
What occurs in the chronic stage of Weil's dz? Jaundice occurs if organisms in liver, nephritis occurs if organisms in kidneys. Death by kidney failure
What type of diseases do Yersinia cause? Cause zoonotic dzs
What does Yersinia pestis cause? Plague - "pesty little plague by that irritating flea"
What is the vector of plague? The vector is the rat flea
What disease has the sx begin with sudden fever, conjunctivitis, and regional bubos (swollen lymph nodes) Plague
Where does bubonic plague/black death come from, and what is the fatality rate? Bubonic plague comes DIRECTLY from bite of an infected flea, death occurs 3-5 days, and if untxed fatal in 50-70% of cases
What does Pneumonic plague result from? What is the fatality rate? Pneumonic plague results from human to human transmission via respiratory droplets from a bubonic plague infected person. Death occurs in 2 days, if untxed fatality is 99%
What do yersinia pseudotuberculosis or yersinia enterolitica cause? They cause yersiniosis
How is yersiniosis spread, and what does it produce? Yersiniosis is spread via contaminated food or water, and causes severe gi disease
What does Treponema pallidum pallidum cause? Syphilis
What does treponema pallidum pertenue cause? Yaws
What does treponema pallidum carateum cause? Pinta
What bacteria is cork-screw shaped, motile organism? Treponema
What are the sx of primary stage syphilis? Hard, painless chancre, erythema, ulceration
What are the sx of second stage syphilis? mucocutaneous rash, lesions in most all tissues
what are the sx of tertiary stage syphilis? CNS problems (tabes dorsalis, Argyll Robertson pupil), Gumma Aortitis (ascending aortic aneurysm), and Death
In what infection is gumma aortitis seen? Syphilis stage 3 (gumma aortitis = ascending aortic aneurysm)
In what infection is argyll robertson pupil seen? In tertiary syphilis
What happens with an in utero syphilis infection? Abortion, stillbirth or birth defects
What is Yaws and what is the organism that causes it? Yaws is a localized, ulcerated red papule, which eventually spreads that may last months or years. Caused by treponema pallidum pertenue
What is Pinta and what bacteria causes it? Pinta is epidermal or dermal infection with eventual depigmentation of the skin, caused by treponema pallidum carateum
Francisella causes a disease of what animals? rabbits and rodents
How is Francisella transmitted to humans? Francisella becomes zoonotic after ingestion or handling of infected animals or bite of an insect
What are the vectors of Tularemia, and what organism causes it? Vectors: ticks, deer, flies, blackflies, mosquitos, or lice. caused by francisella
Tularemia is often seen in what groups of people? Tularemia is seen in hunter, trappers, and sheep handlers
What disease had sx of abrupt onset of fever, headache, painful adenopathy, back pain, chills, and prostration? Tularemia (Rabbit Fever)
Tularemia has regional manifestations based on the site of entry... where are these typically? Skin is the most common, then eye, lung, and gi infection
Borrelias cause what type of disease? zoonotic
What does Borrelia burgdorferi cause? Lyme Disease (Deer burgers with lyme sauce)
What does Borrelia recuurentis cause? Relapsing Fever
What is the vector carrying borrelia burgdorferi? ticks
Where is lyme dz an edemic? Minnesota, Wisconsin and NE seaboard
When is lyme dz incidence the highest summer months
Lyme dz is a ______ infection that seeds other tissues, esp the what? Lyme dz is a blood stream infection that seeds other tissues, esp the nerves, heart, and joints.
What is characterized by erythema chronica migrans (Bulls eye lesion), malaise, fever, chills, stiff neck, aches and pains for several weeks Stage 1 on Lyme dz
What is stage 2 lyme dz characterized by? neural and heart problems, including cranial neuropathy, radiculoneuropathy, meningitis, weeks to months after stg 1
What is stage 3 of lyme dz characertized by? Joint problems, usually large joints - arthritis, and neural dysfunction leading to dementia and paralysis
What is the vector of relapsing fever? Lice which carry borrelia recurrentis
Relapsing fever is a _____ infection producing what sx? Relapsing fever is a blood stream infection producing sudden onset of high fever, chills, headaches and drenching sweats
Relapsing fever last a few days, then _____, but can recur _____ consecutive times Relapsing fever lasts a few days, then abates for several days or weeks, but can recur 4-10 consecutive times
Chlamydia are _____ _____ parasites Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites
What causes Psittacosis aka _____? And How is it spread? PSittacosis aka parrot fever is caused by chlamydia psittaci infection thru contact with birds
What does Psittacosis (Parrot fever) cause? It causes human respiratory dz and fatal pneumonia
Sx of psittacosis (parrot fever) often being resembling what? Influenza
What is the most common sexually transmitted dz? Trachoma (chlamydia trachomatis)
What leads to chronic keratoconjunctivitis, which progresses to corneal scarring and blindness? Trachoma (chlamydia trachomatis) if not sexually transmitted
Created by: margaretrhager