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MCAT Biology

plasma membrane components hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail, embedded proteins
plasma membrane controls.... movement of solutes in and out of cell
diffusion high --> low concentration along gradient; no energy, PASSIVE
osmosis moves high --> low H2O concentration; low --> high SOLUTE concentration; no energy, PASSIVE
facilitated diffusion high --> low solute concentration, requires carrier protein, PASSIVE
active transport moves AGAINST concentration gradient; requires ATP, ACTIVE
enzyme structure = proteins; portion of enzyme binding substrate= active site
enzyme-substrate complex enzyme acts upon substrate by binding to active site --> catalyze one specific reaction by lowering activation energy
factors affecting enzyme activity pH, concentration of substrate & enzyme, temperature, cofactors
inhibition 2 types= competitive & noncompetitive inhibition; overcome by increasing substrate concentration
glycolysis ANAEROBIC catabolism of glucose --> pyruvate (doesn't require O2)
anaerobic respiration occurs in absence of O2 --> 2 ATP/ glucose molecule (from glycolysis)
fermentation begins w/ glycolysis, ends w/ conversion pyruvate --> LACTIC ACID (muscle cells) or ETHANOL (yeast)
aerobic respiration occurs in presence of O2 --> 36 ATP/ glucose molecule
pyruvate decarboxylation pyruvate --> acetyl CoA
Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) breakdown of acetyl CoA --> NADH, FADH2, ATP
ETC/ oxidative phosphorylation O2= final electron acceptor --> becomes H2O
mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase --> 2 identical daughter cells (somatic), 2n
meiosis discontinuous in females, germ cells, 2 rounds of PMAT (cell division), n
spermatogenesis spermatogonium (2n) --> primary spermatocyte (2n) --> meiosis I --> secondary spermatocytes (n) --> meiosis II --> sperm cells (n)
path of sperm SEVEN UP= Seminiferous tubules, Epidymis, Vas deferens, Ejaculatory duct, Nothing, Urethra, Penis
oogenesis oogonium (2n) --> primary oocyte --> meiosis I --> 1 secondary oocyte, 1 first polar body --> meiosis II --> ovum (n), second polar body
products of spermatogenesis vs. oogenesis spermatogenesis 1 --> 4 sperms; oogenesis 1 --> 1 ovum, contains all organelles
embryogenesis: development fertilized ovum --> MORULA (solid ball of cells) --> BLASTULA (hollow ball of cells w/ fluid center) --> GASTRULA (3 layer cell)
primary germ layers: ectoderm derived from nervous system (brain/ spinal cord), epidermis, lens of eye, inner ear
primary germ layer: endoderm from epithelial lining of digestive tract, lungs, liver, pancreas
primary germ layer: mesoderm from muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, gonads, kidneys
Created by: kpan