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MCAT Gen Chem

quantum number: n principle quantum number
quantum number: l angular momentum quantum number; 0 to n-1
quantum number: ml magnetic quantum number (orbital within a subshell); -l to l
quantum number: ms spin quantum number; -1/2 to +1/2
hund's rule orbitals filled so that max # of parallel half-filled orbitals are filled first; one orbital can't have 2 e- while another has 0
effective nuclear charge (Zeff) attractive, positive charge of the nucleus perceived by valence e-; INCREASE w/ electronegativity
atomic radius size of atom; DECREASE w/ electronegativity pattern
ionization energy energy required to removed an election; INCREASE w/ electronegativity & Zeff
electron affinity amount of energy released when an e- is added to neutral atom; larger for atoms closer to octet; INCREASE w/ electronegativity
electronegativity attraction of an atom for e- IN A BOND; fluorine most electronegative
metallic character characteristics associated with metals: electropositive, good conductors of head and electricity, malleable; DECREASE w/ electronegativity
formal charge valence electrons - nonbonding electrons (lone pairs) - # bonds
AX2 linear
AX3 trigonal planar
AX2E, AX2E2 bent
AX4 tetrahedral
AX3E trigonal pyramidal
AX5 trigonal bipyramidal
AX6 octahedral
AX4E2 square planar
molecular dipole depends on... MAGNITUDE & DIRECTION of bond dipole
increasing strength of intermolecular forces dispersion forces --> dipole-dipole --> ion-dipole --> hydrogen bonding (strongest)
Boyle's law Pressure & Volume INVERSELY proportional; P1V1= P2V2
Charles' Law Volume & Temperature DIRECTLY proportional; V1/T1 = V2/T2
Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT
Dalton's Law Ptotal= Pa + Pb + Pc +....; Pa= Xa Ptotal
Graham's Law SPEED of gas particles if proportional to square root of their MOLECULAR WEIGHT; @ same temp, particles have same average kinetic energy; (rate A/ rate B)= sqrt (MMb/ MMa)
gas behaves most like ideal gas at... low pressure, high volume
Created by: kpan