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European History

Reformation/Witchcraft/Scientific Revolution

Period in which witch-hunts occurred in Europe 1450 - 1750
Why does Levack avoid the term witch-craze? Because it makes the beliefs of the witches seem to be the result of a mental disorder
Why is the term witch-hunt preferred? because all witchcraft prosecutions involved some sort of search for malefactors
What is Maleficia? the performance of harmful deeds by some sort of supernatural power
What is the difference between sorcery and witchcraft? sorcery can be harmful or beneficial, and is mechanical, acquired skill
What is high magic? Sophisticated magic requiring education - generally alchemy and divination; most often white magic
What is low magic? Generally the Maleficia
What is diabolism? devil-worship and the assumed pact a witch makes with the devil
What is demonic possesion and obsession? possession by devil/evil spirit, obession = attack of person by devil/evil spirit - done by devil and witches
What is the total number of Europeans who were prosecuted for witchcraft? 90,000
How many people were executed for being accused of witchcraft? 45,000
What did Luther call the Epistle of Straw? the Epistle of St. James, which says that good works are necessary
What are the "true and noblest books" of the New Testament according to Luther? the books of St. Paul and Peter
When were the 95 Thesis published? 1517
What were the sacraments advocated by Luther? Eucharist, Baptism, and Penance
What was Luther's belief about transubstantation? He believed in Consubstantiation, that the bread and wine truly became the body and blood of Christ
Why was the Catholic Church so worried about Luther's doctrine? his doctrine implies that clergy and leity are equal, and that clergy/rule werent needed
How was publishing important to the spread of the reformation? Most publishers were clergy and so defected to Luther's cause first; also, Church arguments against Luther were in Latin, which most people couldnt read
Who created the Jesuits and why? Ignatius of Loyola, 1491, as the Company of Jesus - to conduct missionary activity, especially in the Muslim world
What was the motto of the jesuits? "Pray as if all depends on God; act as if all depended on you"
Why were some people opposed to the Jesuits? because they didnt come together to pray, refused to have a female order, and were confessors to royalty
What changes were made by the 1547 Council of Trent? Advocated justification by works AND faith, acceptance of scripture and tradition, assertion of 7 sacraments, Mass spoken in Latin, communion in only one form; but also put limits on religious images, cults, and indulgences (as the reformers wanted)
Who came up with the 3 laws of planetary motion? Copernicus, Keppler, Brahe
Who discovered the properties of blood circulation? William Harvey
What is Anabaptism? rejection of oathtaking/offices, belief that outside world is an abomination and Christians must separate themselves; began in early 1500's
What was the Peasant's War? 1525 - Black Death made it so Peasants had the advantage, so they demanded better conditions; Luther told the Lords to kill the peasants
What are some points of agreement among reformers? Rejection of Papal authority, Hatred of Rome, Reduction of Clergy's Power, Rejection of Monasticism
What doctrines were changed by the reformation? Sola Scriptura (scripture alone idea), Rejection of Efficacy of good works, Reduction of number of sacraments, Denial of Purgatory, Rejection of the cults of saints, Allowance of Bibles in the Vernacular, More emphasis on Preaching
What were some disagreements among the reformers? The Eucharist, some disagreed with it because it was a Roman idea; Replacement of the Mass
Who is Zwingli? 1484, responsible for the reformation in Zurich; said that through learning people can undergo moral reform
What is Calvinism? stress on disciple, godliness, and missionary zeal; started in Geneva/Switzerland/Hungary in 1700's
What are the 5 points of Calvinism? TULIP, Total Depravity, Unconditioned Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistable Grace, Preserverance of the Saints
What is Total Depravity? People are born as slaves to sin, and will not follow God unless God has chosen to save them and make them worship him
What is Unconditioned Election? God chooses those to save based only on his mercy
What is Limited Atonement? Christ's death only absolves those people of sin whom God has already chosen to save
What is Irresistabel grace? the saving grace of God is applied to those he has chosen to save and eventually brings them into the faith and makes them obey the Gospel
What is the preserverance of the Saints? any person who has been saved by God cannot be later condemned; called saints in that they are set apart by God
What was the Statue of Provisor (1351)? Limited the power of the Pope in England; required licensing/approval by the King
What was the Statute of Praemunire (1353)? Limited the amount of cases that could be taken to Rome for appeals
What was the problem between Henry VIII and Catherine? Catherine failed to produce male heir, so he tried to divorce her on grounds that she was his brother's widow (against scriptures); Pope Clement VII said no because of influence of Charles V (who was Catherine's nephew)
What did Henry VIII do in retaliation to the refusal to divorce him? 1529, appointed himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England; 1536 supression of monasteries, Ten Articles (defining mostly Catholic doctrines), 6 Articles
How did King Henry control the reformation in England? because of his authority as the Supreme Head of the Church, and having denounced Papal authority, he defined mostly Catholic principles as doctrine but also supressed monasteries and advocated Bibles in vernacular as the reformers wished
Who allowed Henry to divorce, and what was his married life like after that? Thomas Cranmer (Lord Chancellor), was married 5 more times and eventually had Edward, future King of England
How can the reign of Queen Mary be defined? 1553-58, reintroduces Catholicism, pursued heresey vigorously (many executions)
Who is Huldrych Zwingli? Responsible for the reformation in Zurich and Switzerland
What was Zwingli's theology? faith + works, eucharist only symbolic, no music in churches, no monasteries, less images in churches; Bible is the authority
What is John Calvin's view on the Eucharist? believes that Christ is spiritually present in the bread and wine
Against whom did Zwingli and his followers go to war? The Anabaptists, who refused to join his church because of his practice of infant baptism
How did Zwingli's career come to an end? He was esentially leader of Zurich, and prohibited any compromises with still-Catholic cantons; they went to war on Zurich and Zwingli was killed on the battlefield
What was Luther's original goal in life? to become a lawyer; however, he joined St. Augustine's monastery after promising to do so if he lived through a thunderstorm
What "sparked the reformation in Europe"? Martin Luther mailing Albert, Archbishop of Mainz his 95 Thesis, which were published and spread; mainly in response to the sales of indulgences by Johann Tetzel in Germany
What were the names of the 3 best known Luther works, published in 1520? To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and Freedom of a Christian
What was the papal bull Exsurge Domine, published June 1520 about? A warning to Luther that he would be excommunicated if he didnt recant 41 sentences drawn from his works
What did Luther do in response to the papal bull Exsurge Domine in December 1520? publicly set fire to the papal bull and related documents
What happened to Luther in 1521? He was excommunicated from the Church by Pope Leo X
Describe the Diet of Worms April 1521, Trial of Martin Luther, run by Emporer Charles V - he refused to recant, so he was outlawed and his works banned
What was Luther's response to the Peasant's War of 1524? Revolt against the higher classes by the impoverised lower class, led mainly by Thomas Munzer; people intepreted the New Testament as being against Lordship; Luther called for the nobility to kill the peasants
What is the handbook that was released to help identify and punish Witches? Malleus Maleficarum, ie, The Hammer of Witches, first published in 1487
Why did people believe that the majority of witches were women? because they believed that women had inferior faith and were more susceptible to carnal desire, culminating in sex with demons/devils to become a witch
What was the theology of the Enthusiasts, and who led them? Led by Schwarmer, who said that everyone is liberated from the law and will be forgiven anyway, so people can do as they please
What was published in defense of the peasants during the Peasant's War of 1525? 12 Articles of Memmingham, which referred to how the Bible said nothing of office or Lordship
Describe the state of Germany shortly after the Reformation politically and religiously fragmented, however almost all imperial cities had some form of reformation (except for Cologne)
Why was the reformation so popular and easily accepted by most countries? because of the printing presses, easy acceptance of changes, Universities, appeal of being independent of monarch and church, and the prior calls for reformation which showed a corrupt clergy and church
What were some of the immediate results of the Reformation? reduction in the power of the clergy, supression of the majority of monasteries, bishop and monarchy absolved for a time, though Bishops were brought back with a different status
How can you link the Reformation to the Scientific Revolution? the rejection of the idea of Purgatory allowed for a rethinking of the heavens
Who were the Lollards? a group that emerged in the early 1400's, influenced and possibly started by John Wycliffe in England - were for reading the Bible in the Vernacular and againts pilgrimages and use of images in worship
How did Henry VIII get Parliament agree to him taking over the Church? because of the rise in Nationalism in England, and the fact that most of the Bishops were loyal King's men
What was Thomas More's role in the Protestant Reformation? Lord Chancellor to Henry VIII in 1529; wrote many arguments againts other reformers (including Luther) in defense of the Church; refused to acknowledge Henry VIII as Supreme Head of the Church, was executed in 1535
Describe the reign of Queen Elizabeth of England (1558) Emphasized outward conformity to the religion of the realm, though theologians were troublemakers
Describe the Catholic Reformation? 16th century, reformation of "capite and membris", ie, head and body of the church - resumption of secular control of the church (Pope) and monastic reform movements for clergy and monasteries
What is the Oratory of Divine Love? Founded in Rome, 1517 to restore dignity to divine services, awaken spiritual life through special devotion - many became reformers
Who was Alessandro Farnese? 1468, made people from the Oratory of Divine Love into Cardinals, who published papers asking for reform of papal power and other concessions to the protestant reformers
Created by: phurst00