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Comparative Politics

GOV20 Final Exam

Structuralism Lipset, Huntington, Marx; social, economic, and cultural preconditions causal to development, democratization, revolution, and ethnic conflict. Regardless of individual agents, outcomes are determined by similar conditions.
Modernisation Theory Rostow, Lipset, Lerner; structural theory that economic forces drive development and democratisation; Euro-centric "single path" to modernisation (urbanisation, industrialisation, education, secularisation etc.)
Unequal Exchange/Declining Terms of Trade Gunder Frank; comparative advantage of periphery in raw materials perpetuates exploitive and inferior trade relationship with core; periphery states should “go it alone”, break from international capitalist system.
Relative Backwardness Gerschenkron; how backward a nation is compared to its neighbors; for countries like Britain, relative backwardness was very low, making it easy to develop. In others, like in sub-Saharan Africa, it is harder to develop because backwardness is very high.
International Demonstration Effect Di Palma, Huntington; the effects or outcomes in one state can affect government policies and expectations in neighboring states. For example, the democratic success of Latvia, Estonia; or, Spain and Portugal through the EU.
Liberalism Weber; foundation of democracy; champions individual rights over society, religious authorities, state; non-hierarchical; inalienable rights and inherent equality of all citizens; encourages competition; citizens free to choose how to run governments.
Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs) Wade; countries that switched from agriculture to industry, not at the level of the most developed countries; export promotion and domestic industry brought development, challenged dependency theory.
Core vs. Periphery The development of the Core and underdevelopment of Periphery are two sides of the same coin; international economy is zero-sum game; slavery and poor trade policy exploited the periphery to the Core's benefit.
The Kuomingtang (KMT) Taiwan; led by Chiang Kai-Shek; nationalist party and dictatorship with the help of U.S. foreign investment; destroyed land-owning class; land reform; focus on exports, many banks etc. out of state hands; moved in 1900s; few ties to Taiwanese society.
Park Chung Hee President of South Korea (1961-1979); authoritarian; modernization by export led growth; criticized for human rights; developmentalist; lowered trade barriers, used loans and subsidies to steer heavy industry; created major automobile sector; hike in GDP.
Developmental State Wade; a state that can lead development; autonomous, highly bureaucratic, interventionist (tariffs, subsidies, etc.), business-friendly; allows for cohesive, long-term strategy, quicker than democratic states; East Asian NICs
State Autonomy Wade; precondition for the developmental state; the state bureaucracy must be insulated from interest groups so that it can make the best decisions for the economy.
Import-Substituting Industrialization (ISI) Substitute imports, finished goods, with local substitutes; policy to subsidize, orchestrate production of substitutes, protect barriers to trade (tariffs), keep domestic currency overvalued; state-led industrialization; protectionism; Ex. Latin America.
Neoclassical Development Theory Adam Smith; David Ricardo; stressed free trade, privatisation, and producing goods with the lowest opportunity cost as means to development; the current basis for IMF policies, and the IMF conditions loans on trade liberalization, privatization, etc...
Augusto Pinochet & the Chicago Boys Chilean dictator, UChicago economists; opened free-market capitalist economy, reduced tariff barriers; foreign competition shrunk industry, agriculture exports boomed; economy grew after 1983; 6% growth/year from 1990, largest, wealthiest in Latin America
Labor Repressive Agriculture Skocpol, Moore; a system employed by landed aristocracy where peasants are tied to the land and forced to work; impediment to democratization because it deprives peasants of rights and leads to repressive state apparatuses; weakens state
The Third Wave Huntington; the period since 1975 which has yielded 30 new democracies, doubling the total number; took place largely in Latin America and Eastern Europe; Vatican opposed authoritarianism; rapid growth, economic development; declining legitimacy.
Cross-cutting Cleavages Lipset; citizens share many different types of identity (social, political, economic, religious, ethnic etc.); more conducive to stable democratisation due to less division and violence; structuralist precondition of Modernisation Theory.
Capital Mobility The ability for the citizens of a country to move their assets (stocks & bonds vs. land) abroad; where this is high, the rich are more likely to tolerate democracy; stabilises democracy
Political Pact An agreement between political rivals to share power in order to stabilise democracy; each party makes various concessions to come to compromise; South Africa.
Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Prime Minister for first 12 years; leadership demonstrated democratic values; systematically under-utilised power, encouraging the independence of institutions such as the judiciary and governing the country through negotiation and compromise.
Indira Gandhi Nehru's daughter; Indian PM 1966-77, 80-84; sought secular state; declared state of emergency in 75; ruled by decree (martial law) for 2 years; electoral loss to Janata Party was Congress Party's first major defeat; arrested by Janata PM; re-elected in 80
Nelson Mandela Leader of African National Congress; sentenced to life in prison after protests of Sharpesville Massacre; released by F.W. de Klerk after 30 years; became South African President; under-utilised power, respected court decisions, stepped down after 1 term
Competitive Authoritarianism Levitsky; regime that looks like democracy but tilts the playing field in incumbents' favour; private media is not banned, but bought off by the government; informal gangs, not army, repress protestors; rigs, but does not cancel, elections.
Shari'a Bellin; Islamic law from the Koran; concerns everyday life (practices of worship, social practices like marriage, food, judicial proceedings, penal codes); basis for theocratic government of Iran, other muslim countries; "opposed to democratisation"
Social Revolution Skocpol; rapid, fundamental transformation of political and class structure; excludes intra-state regime changes, changes to the state system without social change (political revolutions), class transformations without political change.
The J-Curve Davies; relative depravation; revolutions are not only in poor countries; the expansion of the gap between what people aspire to and what they have leads to rebellion; expectations for progress will rise until the state’s performance no longer meets them.
Foco Strategy Bases success of communist revolutions on Cuban model of small guerilla force in the mountains which gains support from peasants; much of American anti-communism policy in Latin America unsuccessful after Cuba, particularly in Bolivia.
Mir Agrarian communes given to newly freed serfs as part of a modernising program in 1861; land owned by a community, distributed to individuals; meant to enhance solidarity, autonomy.
Bolsheviks A faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party; led by Lenin, Trotsky; sought skip from capitalism to communism; organised, no tie to provisional government; put working class in the administration; armed the Red Army of Communist Party
Vladimir Lenin Charismatic leader of the Bolshevik party; brought down the provisional government; established communism in Russia; led Soviet Union from 1917-1924
Soviets The workers’ councils that appeared after the 1905 uprisings; in Petrograd, asserted right to govern concomitantly with the republican government in Moscow.
Sultanistic Regime Regime fused to weak, limited state; difficult to split leader from state authority; the state (and its institutions) is a personal instrument of the sultan; personal ties define career mobility; susceptible to revolutions and state collapse
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Halliday; clerical leader who led religious opposition to the Shah during the 1960s; arrested, exiled; created Islamic ideology that caused 1979 Revolution; ensured the emergence of an Islamic dictatorship by consolidating power after the revolution
The Collective Action/Free Rider Problem Davies; cost of participation is high (time, money, life); benefit of involvement is low (minor impact); no loss to the rebellion if non-participatory; problem arises when all of the peasantry come to this same conclusion; collective action is impossible.
Primordialism Geertz; structuralist theory that ethnicity is invariable, defined by primordial attachments; ethnic conflict is deeply rooted and triggered by ancient hatreds; pessimistic about the prospect of ethnic peace in pluralistic states
Ethnic Group A group that is tied together by a certain race, religion, language, or other objective difference; the difference must be salient—cannot be based around eye color alone, for example.
Ethnic Entrepeneur Bates; part of the instrumentalist “top down” approach during times of violent ethnic conflict; create or capitalize on ethnic problems under the surface to gain political support (Hitler, Milosevic); tend to be either marginal leaders or weak insiders.
Nationalism The force that ties a nation to a state; a nation is a group identity that commands one’s ultimate loyalty in conflict; nations are generally tied to one state; some states have more than one (Yugoslavia); some nations do not have a state (Palestine).
Hutu vs. Tutsi Mamdani, Strauss; two ethnic groups of Rwanda; Hutu (85%), Tutsi (10-15%); shared political power before Belgian colonisation; Belgian preference (first Tutsi, then Hutu) led to Tutsi genocide; horrible ethnic violence ignored by the rest of the world.
The Ustashi Revolutionary Movement Crnobrnja; Croat separatist group; unsatisfied with Serb monarchy in Yugoslavia in first half of 20th century; took power when Axis powers occupied the Balkan region in WWII; racist toward Jews, Serbs; killed over 30,000 Serbs.
Josip Tito Crnobrnja; led Partisons, anti-Nazi group for government tolerant of all ethnic groups; sought protection of ethnic minorities, redistribution (wealthier provinces subsidize poorer); raised economy, living standard; forged collective Yugoslavian identity.
Slobodan Milosevic Crnobrnja; mid-level politician sent to calm ethnic/economic conflict between Serbs and Albanian Muslims (1987); national Serbian hero for defending Serbs in Kosovo; sparked ethnic conflict by giving credence to constructivist notions of ethnicity.
Franjo Tudjman Crnobrnja; led Croatian nationalist movement for 1000 years of statehood; became president, honoured old fascist leaders of Croatia, purified language of foreign influence; fear of genocide mobilised Serb majority in Kryna to battle for independence
Kosovo Crnobrnja; region of Serbia with Albanian Muslim majority, Serb minority; former sought independence; Dayton Accords kept Serbs in power, giving KLA support; launched guerilla war in 1998; 2,000 killed, 250,000 displaced; ended by 78-day NATO bombing
Civil Society Organised citizen activity that lies outside the state (churches, charitable organizations, etc.); societal organisational muscle that helps keep governments in check; if strong, then conducive to stable democratisation.
Civil Community Putnam; a society in which people trust each other and treat each other with respect—they participate in public life, and have a sense of the public good.
Social Capital Putnam; the collective value of a social network; connections among individuals, and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.
Pluralism Societies which advocate the acceptance of other cultural values; more likely to establish civil society; more compatible with liberalism as it champions individual rights over the state.
Institutional Strength Levitsky, Huntington; the extent to which the political rules written down on paper are enforced in practice, endure changes in government; institutionalisation; rules valued for their own sake, widely known and accepted within society
Informal Institution Informal rules of the political game, not officially codified, enforced by public authorities; everyone knows, respects them; violating them means there’s some punishment; "dedazo" in Mexico, two-term rule before amendment
Semi-Presidentialism Democratic institution with both a President and PM; directly elected President, PM by parliament; France, Portugal, Poland; President must not be able to fire PM (Russia), both autonomous.
Cohabitation Semi-presidentialist rule by two parties, and two leaders. PM deals with day-to-day, economy; President deals with matters of state, foreign affairs;
Vote of No Confidence Parliamentary institution that can remove a Prime Minister by a vote of the Parliament; shows the majority does not support the policy/leadership of a leader; limits terms;
Plurality Representation Systems where the legislative or executive seat is determined by the candidate who receives the most votes; compatible with presidential regimes; often promote the establishment of a two-party system
District Magnitude The number of representatives elected to each district; critical factor driving the aggregate effects of electoral systems on party systems; smaller translates to less direct representation, weakening the effects of PR; higher increases those effects.
Institutionalized Party Systems Systems where citizens have strong party identities, passed down from generation to generation; stable electoral bases; generally regular electoral results. Some examples include Germany, the United States, and Chile.
Duverger's Law Single-member district plurality elections encourage a two-party system.
Multiparty Presidentialism Presidential system; more than two major parties; difficult for one party to obtain majority; presidents select cabinet, have more authority over policy, so underrepresented parties must wait out the term to change; low approval by majority of population
Concurrent Elections Presidential races are held at the same time as congressional races; the presidential race greatly impacts the congressional race, encouraging party line voting; smaller parties have a more difficult time competing; often found in plurality systems.
Consocationalism Lijphart; set of institutions where ethnic groups share power and resources; five key characteristics: parliamentary systems with proportional representation, grand coalitions, quota systems, mutual veto, segmental autonomy; not fully democratic
Collapsed State When the institutions of the state collapse because of weakness and an inability to carry about the basic functions of the state.
Joseph Mobutu President of Zaire for 32 years; his disastrous mismanagement of the economy coupled with enriching himself off its financial and natural resources makes his name synonymous with kleptocracy in Africa.
Charles Taylor President of Liberia from 1997-2003; Africa's most prominent warlord; launched an armed uprising in 1989 from Cote d'Ivoire into Liberia to overthrow its government.
Sunni Muslims in Iraq 15% of Iraqi population; favoured by British under colonial rule; Baathist regime consolidated ethnic power; much to lose, little to gain from consocationalism; boycotted 05 election, constitution; 100 attacks on Shia government/day by late 05.
De-Baathification Policy endorsed by Bush government; Hussein took over the Baath party in the 1980s, heavily militarised, centralised it. After the war, Coalition Provisional Government removed Baathists from government to start anew, removing many skilled officials.
Universalistic Social Policies Social policy based on the provision of social welfare for all through public or private institutions rather than partial and individuals subsidies; middle-class develop stake in welfare state, support it politically
Veto players Individuals or collective actors who have to agree for the legislative status quo to change; can block, dilute policy initiatives;
State Set of permanent, administrative, legal and coercive systems with monopoly over the legitimate use of force; rule of law and bodies that enforce it—Post Office, Army, IRS, etc.; can put you in prison, send you to war, etc; the most slow-moving, permanent.
Government The people who occupy the position of power at any given time—changes the most fluidly and rapidly compared to the others. The President/PM is the head of government. Elections in the US are changes in government.
Regime Rules by which political rules are allocated: Democracy, Monarchy, Totalitarianism, Dictatorship, etc.; change more frequently than states, less than government. Military coup in Honduras is a regime change; U.S. elections are not.
Voluntarism Di Palma; individual agents (political leaders) can overcome poor structural factors; Nelson Mandela (South Africa), Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru (India); avoids structuralism's determinism; hard to flesh out theoretically.
Means-tested Social Policies Policies that target only the poor, undermining cross-class solidarity; middle class has no stake in welfare state, less likely to support it politically; policies often associated with the poor, racial minorities
Shia Muslims in Iraq 60% of population; systematically oppressed by Hussein; 300,000 killed; most to gain from consocationalism; organised, funded by Iran; attacked by Sunni insurgents, suicide bombers (2003-04); BADR, SCIRI militias took over state, killed hundreds of Sunni.
Inchoate Party Systems Systems where parties lack roots in society; parties are personalistic, created for particular candidates, not viewed as relative fixtures in society; high level of electoral volatility; increases likelihood of governmental crises. For example, Peru.
Proportional Representation Lijphart; an electoral voting system where seats are divided according to the percentage of votes each party receives; commonly associated with parliamentary systems; give rise to multiparty systems due to lower barriers to enter the political arena.
Corporatism Universalist societies that are intolerant of having multiple cultures exist within their state; civil society is less likely to be established; state sponsored groups may be established, but bottom-up organizations are less likely to be found.
Amoral Familism Putnam; Banfield’s term for what was found in Italy’s south—everyone looks out for themselves; where worry for self and family trump that for community.
Constructivism Nagel; theory that ethnicity is socially constructed; ethnic groups are formed to some degree from family and kinship ties; political arrangements that spotlight diversity institutionalize ethnic differences, increasing ethnic mobilization and conflict.
Mensheviks A faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party; led by Alexander Kerensky; supported a gradual approach to communism; maintained that Russia had to have a bourgeois revolution beforehand.
Export-Oriented Industrialization (EOI) Exporting goods with comparative advantage to speed-up industrialization; open domestic markets to foreign competition for market access in other countries; reduce tariffs; devalue national currency (floating exchange rate); support exporting sectors.
State Capacity Wade; Includes the function of variables such as the state’s fiscal resources, political autonomy, legitimacy, internal coherence and responsiveness that allows them to act; the ability to govern and rule.
Indian Congress Party Led by Gandhi and Nehru; primarily a political body, transformed into vehicle for social reform; helped instill values and democratic use of law throughout India; dynasty during mid 1900s, where the Nehru family continued to lead as Prime Minister
Josef Stalin Premier of Soviet Union 41-53; uninspiring, effective bureaucratic, ruthless; sought end of the New Economic Policy; wanted "Socialism in One Country" not revolutions around the world; nationalised agriculture under Collectivisation
Created by: yoannkomba
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