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APUSH 2nd semester

Carnegie (1835-1919) American businessman who merged several small steel companies into US steel company. 2nd richest man in history, started poor.
Julia Lathrop (1858-1932) Director of the United States Children's Bureau, she was a major woman advocate for civil rights, education, and child's welfare.
Warren Harding (1865-1923) Republican president 1921-23. President after WWI. "Normalcy" campaign. Most loved president, but secretly drank and gambled with his Ohio Gang. Died in office, Coolidge took over.
Dwight Eisenhower (1890-1969) Republican president 1953-61. Against "communism, Korea, and Corruption." Created NASA, WWII hero, conservative with $, liberal with human beings
JD Rockefeller 1839-1937 Standard Oil Monopoly, built American petroleum industry. Eventually broke up power, but pioneered vertical and horizontal integration of company.
Benjamin Lindsay (1869-1943) Progressive Era Reformer- established juvenile court system for a more considerate form of justice for ↓18
Andrew Mellon (1855-1937) Built industrial giant US Steel. Became Secretary of Treasury: cut taxes, slashed gov. spending and reduced deficit.
Winston Churchill (1874-1965) British Prime Minister during WWII, very popular, set up United Nations and principles of national sovereignty
J.P. Morgan (1837-1913) Started JP Morgan & CO, divided up 2/3 of railroads to 7 firms for equal competition, helped create the Federal Reserve System
Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) Took over Cigar Makers' International Union, established Federation of Trade & Organized Labor Unions, later appointed to council of National Defense
Albert Fall (1861-1944) Representative of the New Mexico territories, later became senator. Fought in Spanish American War. Teapot Dome scandal (oil on US land, went to prison for scandal)
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) Attorney with National Association of the Advancement of Colored People, argued against segregation, Brown VS Board, became the first black justice under president Johnson
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Invented the telephone in 1876 & founded Bell Telephone Company
Amos Pinchot (1873-1944) 1020's Progressive Reformist, founding member of the National Committee to Uphold Constitutional Government
Steve Forbes (1947-) Editor-in-chief of Forbes magazine. Tried but failed to be Republican presidential candidate in 1996
John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) 35th Us President (democrat) Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, Space Race, African American Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam War. Allegedly shot by Oswald, but many other conspiracy theories (CIA, Mafia, Cubans, etc.)
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) British naturalist who came up with the theory of modern evolution in his book "The Origin of Species"
Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) Head of the Division of Forestry, later became Chief Forester. Leading advocate for environmentalism and conservation.
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) Influential Black leader of 1900s. Started the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League and spoke out towards black unity. Started global movement called Garviesm
John Foster Dulles (1888-1959) 53rd Secretary of State under Eisenhower. Major impact on America's foreign policies. Involved in efforts to establish world peace after WWII and Cold War relations with Soviets
Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932) Historian, his famous thesis in "the significance of the frontier in American history."
Jacob Riis (1849-1914) Muckraker who publicized the conditions of slums in his book "How the Other Half Lives" and through photography.
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974) Flew from New York to Paris on his own in 33.5 hours and helped start the aviation industry in the U.S.
Fidel Castro (1926-) Took power in Cuba in 1959, thought to support a democratic government but ended up spreading communism and worsened relations with the U.S.
Mark Twain (1835-1910 a.k.a. Samuel Langhorne Clemens. First signifacant writer able to make it out West and was a big part of the 1800's literary movement. Wrote about his childhood growing up around slavery in 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'
Margaret Robins (1868-1945) Not allowed to attend college but read a lot of Emerson. Joined the Woman's Trade Union League and later became the leader.
Babe Ruth (1895-1948) First black Major League Baseball Player. Played for Red Sox and NY Yankees. Played 1914-1935.
Richard Nixon (1913-1994) 37th U.S. president. Only president to resign in office.
Teddy Roosevelt (1858-1919) 26th U.S. president (republican). Founded the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party, leader of"Rough Riders" during Spanish-American war. Famous for his "Big Stick policy."
Jack Dempsey (1895-1983 Greatest heavyweight prizefighter (boxer) of 1920's. Nicknamed "Kid Blackie"
HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee, formed to investigate communist activity during the Cold War in the U.S.
Helen Hunt Jackson (1830-1855) Wrote poetry, feature articles, and childrens stories to raise awareness of Native American rights. "A Century of Dishonor" "Ramona"
Flappers Young American women during 1920's who adopted a liberated lifestyle. Thin, wore makeup and knee-length dresses, smoked, reaction to growth of female labor force of WWI.
Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) American Politician- Republican Senator from Wisconsin. Used communism and disloyalty to attack politicians + people inside the gov.
Uriah Stephens (1821-1882) Founded the Knights of Labor in 1869, which represented all workers regardless of their race, sex, origin, or skill level.
Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) Committed herself to the Birth Control movement to make women equal to men.
Clara Bow (1905-1965) Known as the "It Girl" during the time of silent films (actress)
Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) When JFK was assassinated, Johnson took over and became the 36 president. Created the "Great Society"- passed Medicare, Voting Rights Act of 1865. Organized the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Department of Transportation.
Grace Abbot (1878-1939) Social worker and activist in Chicago, most known for working with immigrants and child welfare reform. Head of the Immigrants Protective League and had a leading role in the Illinois Women's Suffrage campaign.
Rose Schneiderman (1882-1972) Raised in the ghetto, became a well known trade unionist. Organized thousands of women in unions and was a leader of the Women's Trade Union Leage.
Langston Hughes (1902-1967) Wrote poetry, fiction, and plays during the Harlem Renaissance (1920s-60s) to capture black experience in America.
Malcolm X (1925-1965) Shaped Black Power movement in 1940s + 50s. Grew up with poverty and violence and for most of his life insisted blacks rise above whites.
Martin Luther King Jr (1929-1968) Leader of the African American Civil Rights movement in the 50s and 60s. Most famous for his "I have a dream" speech Won a Nobel Peace Prize.
Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936 =One of the first muckrakers and a successful investigative journalist who embraced socialism.
Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) Wife of FDR. Fought for rights of minorities and women. Became active in woman's affairs and the Democratic Party and
Robert McNamara (1916-2009) Brought the Defense Department under civilian control during his 7 years as Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and Johnson. Big in Vietnam War and Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ray Stannard Baker (1870-1946) One of the 1st famous muckrakers in 1900s. Focused on child labor and African American Child Labor. Created his own magazine, American Magazine with other famous muckrakers.
Ida Tarbell (1857-1944) Famous muckraker of 1900s. Wrote for McCluer's Magazine and founded American Magazine. Wrote about the Standard Oil Company, women's rights, and factory labor laws.
Eugene Debs (1855-1926) American socialist, ran for president 5xs. Spent much of his time traveling the US speaking about the bad side of capitalism and the use of unions.
General Westmoreland (1914-2005) Youngest General Major during Vietnam War. Underestimated the power of the Vietnamese and is blamed for many losses during the war.
Sara Baker (1873-1945) Made big changes to child public health in NYC, which spread to the rest of the US. Had a doctorate in public health from the New York University Medical School.
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Born a slave, when emancipate he moved to West Virginia and opened a school for African American children. Became a famous public speaker on race and public relations.
Sacco (1891-1927)& Vanzetti (1888-1921) Italian anarchists arrested for robbery and murder. Believed to have been executed mainly for their political beliefs + immigrant status.
Madeline Breckinridge (1872-1920) American reformer who fought for womans suffrage, public education, and state libraries. Started the foundation Kentucky Tuberculosis Commission.
Louis Brandeis (1856-1941) 1st Jewish man to be appointed to Supreme Court. Became known for liberal viewpoints and commitment to judicial philosophy.
Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) English comic actor, film director and composer. Used mime, slapstick, and other visual comedy routines in the silent film era. Known for "Kid Auto Races In Venice"
William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) A Nebraska congressman who ran for president 3xs. Became Wilson's Secretary of State. Famous for lectures on financial topics.
Julia Howe (1819-1910) Author of the Civil War anthem "The Battle Hymn of the Republic."
F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) Wrote scripts, poems, lyrics, and books. Author of "The Great Gatsby" and "The Side of Paradise"
Rosa Parks (1913-2005) Arrested for refusing to give up her seat, which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development.
Carrie Catt (1859-1947) Women's rights activist who promoted women's suffrage. Became head of the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1915.
Gloria Steinem (1934-) Women's rights activist who pushed for better jobs and images for women, wanted women to be against pornography and other degrading aspects of society towards women.
John Dewey (1859-1952) Influential American philosopher, psychologist, +educational reformer. Developer of Pragmatism (idea of connecting practice and theory, and functional psychology.
William Howard Taft (1857-1930) 27th US president and later Chief Justice under Harding. Emphasized trust-busting, civil service reform, and strengthening of the ICC.
Huey Long (1893-1935) Nicknamed The Kingfish. Govenor of Louisianna and US Senator (democrat). Created the "Share Our Wealth Program" with wealth distribution measures.
Jimmy Carter (1924-) 39th US president (1977-81). Created Department of Energy and Department of Education, established a National Energy Policy, and was a strong believer in human rights. Won Nobel Prize after president.
W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) Civil rights activist and sociologist. Co-founder of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) 28th US president (1929-33). Worked to reform bank system, signed Federal Reserve Act, and established Federal Trade Commission.
Dr. Francis Townsend (1867-1960) Physician during the Great Depression who developed the Townsend Plan (old-age pension proposal) which influenced the Social Security system developed by Roosevelt.
George Bush (1924-) 41st US President (1989-93)(republican).
Crystal Eastman (1881-1928) Co-Editor of The Liberator magazine, she was a journalist, feminist, and lawyer who fought for women's right to vote.
Dolores Huerta (1930-) Founder of the United Farm Workers of America. Became a role model to women and displayed what women could achieve.
Harry Hopkins (1890-1946) Adviser to Roosevelt and a key member in the New Deal. Help create the Works Progress Administration and the Lend Lease Act in WWI.
Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) 40th US President (1981-89)(republican). Created new economic system, Reaganomics. Pushed for ↓ taxes, ↓ gov. spending, and controlling money supply. Anti-communist who ended Cold War.
Charlotte Gilman (1860-1935) Major advocate of economic independence for women in 1890s. Wrote "Women and Economics" arguing that women were too dependent on men and should be able to make their own living.
John J. Pershing (1860-1948) Sent by President Wilson to stop Pancho Villa in Mexico buy could never catch him. He comanded the first contingent of US soldiers sent to Europe.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Theoretical Physicist who left Nazi Germany and moved to NJ.
Bill Clinton (1946-) 42nd US President, served 2 terms (1993-2001)(democrat). Family and Medical Leave Act, North American Free Trade Agreement, prospering economy. Found guilty of having an affair with a white house staffer during 2nd term and almost impeached.
Mary Jones/Mother Jones (1837-1930) Had a hard lift, lost family to yellow fever. Joined Knights of Labor, fought child labor, and joined the United Mine Workers. Found the Social Democratic party and helped with many strikes.
Pancho Villa (1878-1923) Became main component in Mexican Revolution of 1910. His army attacked a town in New Mexico and killed US citizens. Wilson sent a force to capture him, but he wasn't killed until 1923 by gunmen.
Walt Disney (1901-1966) Started his animation studio and created Mickey Mouse in Hollywood. Revolutionized the film industry and leisure activities by developing his amusement part, Disneyland.
Gerald Ford (1913-2006) 38th US President, became president after Nixon Scandal in 1974. Served in Navy during WWII and was a well liked president.
Will Kellog (1860-1951) Nutritionist who pioneered flaked breakfast cereal to revolutionize eating habits in the United States
Carranza (1859-1920) A rebel in Mexico in the early 1900s who became president and was a rebel and folk hero in Mexico. He was assassinated in 1920, and Pancho Villa took over.
John Steinbeck (1902-19680) Wrote "The Grapes of Wrath" about the life of "Okies" during the Dust Bowl Migration. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1962 and received the Presidential and U.S. Medals of Freedom.
George Patton (1885-1945) A US General during WWII who was one of the most important and unorthodox leaders of the war. "Old Blood and Guts" was known for his profanity and charisma.
Florence Kelley (1859-1932) She pushed for child labor laws and shortened women's hours and fought for women's minimum wage. Also helped create the New York Child Labor Committee.
The Big Four Council of the US (Wilson), UK(David Lloyd George), Italy (Vittorio Orlando), and France (Georges Clemenceau). Created treaties for countries s.a. Germany.
Okies Oklahoma farmers who were forced off of their land after the depression, many moved West towards California.
Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964-) Served under Roosevelt and one a Medal of Honor. Created the 42 infantry in the National Guard, organized the Bonus Army for veterans that wanted bonuses, and was the commander when Pearl Harbor was attacked.
Vladimir Llyich Lenin (1870-1924) Communist politician, leader of the Bolsheviks, led the Soviets during 1917-1924 fighting to establish control of Russia.
George Marshall (188-1959) Chief of staff in US Army during WWII, greatest military leader since Stonewall Jackson, only professional soldier ever to win a Novel Peace Prize.
Jonas Salk (1914-1995) Developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio.
Ida Wells (1862-1931) After having to give up her seat on a train she sued and court ruled in her favor. Wrote "The Living Way". Was anti-lynching and started the first black women's suffrage group and the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) Took over after Lenin died and made Russia totalitarian. Started The Great Purge (killed thousands of rebels a year). Famous for us of police terror and mass murders of his own people.
Harry Truman (1884-1972) 33rd US Presiden (1945-1953)(democrat). Took over after FDR's death. His cold war policies shaped American foreign policies. Protected & promoted the New Deal and guided war-time nation to peace. One of the best presidents
Cesar Chavez (1927-1993) Mexican-American who fought for the rights of migrant farm workers peacefully. Founded groups and protests and was very passionate.
Carrie Nation(1846-1911) A prohibition supporter who led many anti-saloon campaigns. She was famous for breaking into saloons and destroying alcohol barrels with an ax.
Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971 Promoted reform of Soviet agriculture, education, & technology. Launched the Sputnik program and had the 1st human orbit Earth, putting the Soviets ahead in the Space Race.
Alger Hiss (1904-1996) President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Accused of giving secret US documents to Soviet spies, and convicted in 1950.
Eldridge Cleaver (1935-1998) Black rights activist, writer, and conservative Christian. Part of the Black Panther Party in 1966.
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) 31st US President (1929-1933)(republican). Tried to save $ and energy during WWI. Stock Market crash →Great Depression. Often blamed for Depression & didn't do much to help "Hoovervilles"
Colin Powell (1937-) Joined military and was sent to South Vietnam as an adviser by JFK. Received a Purple Heart & Soldier Medal. Became Major General, the Reagan's Secretary of Defense. Under George W. Bush, he was the first African-American Secretary of State.
Created by: 540460602