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Histo Review

NWHSU Histology 1 Final Review

The Neruomuscular Junction
Pre-synaptic membrane contains Axon Terminal GSE Synaptic Vesicles containing ACH
Post synaptic membrane: Chemically -dependent receptors for ACh
Binding of Ach causes: Subthreshold depolarizations leading to the AP
The Action Potential (AP) is: The voltage change necessary to open Calcium channels in the SER, releasing Ca to bind to troponin.
Ca to bind to troponin triggers: The sliding Filament theory of contraction the Ap thus causes the initiation of contraction, inactivation of aCH activity begins the cascade the events necessary to relax.
What makes up the M-Line: Myosin held together on either side.
What makes up the I Band: Just thin filaments.
What makes up the A Band: Thin, and Thick.
Makes up the H Band: Just thick.
Z- Lines are made up of Alph Actin.
During Contraction A band: did not change length.
Contraction I Band: Remains as Z Line.
Contraction I & Z Slide over each other ( Thin and Thck slide over each other).
Contraction ___ & ___ go away. I and H
During contraction M: Stays where it was.
What limits the z Contraction: A thick fillaments is limiting contraction.
Triads: Skeletal Muscle
Triads contain ___ Terminal Cisternae 2
Triads contain ___Tubule 1 between myofibrils
Triads contain 2 tc & 1 Ttubule btw myofibrils at the ___/___ Bands juction. I & A
Diads are ______Muscle Cardiac
Diads have ___TC and ___T-tuble 1 & 1 between myofibrils at z0line
Limits of sarcomere "____to shining ___" Z, Z
Skeletal muscle Triads have a ____ diatmeter T-tuble Narrower
Cardiac muscle has a _____Diameter T-Tubule Wider
Neuron: Neuron cell body and all of its extensions.
Cell Body: Essential for the survival of the neuron, contains all of the organelles for protein synthesis, repair proteins ,production of NTX.
Extentions of the Nervous Tissue have Three main purposes: Reception, Conduction, Synaptic Trnsmission.
Reception- Various stimuli dendrites , cell body, axon,
Conduction Nerve impulses AP: Axon
Synaptic Transmission. NTX releaased that act on receptors signal other neurons other muscle or gland. Nerve terminals.
Most common of neuronal Shapes Though wide variety among these: Multipolar Neurons
Many dendrites, one axon Multipolar Neuron
Axons may have collateral branches, have few branch points until their termination. Multipolar Neuron
Final common pathway neurons to innervate skelletal muscle cells may reslut in the innervation of 40,000 muscle cells Multipolar Neuron
Dendrites branch profusely and exhibit spines which greatly increase the surface area for synaptic contact. Multipolar Neuron.
All Primary Afferent neurons Psuedounipolar Nuerons
Cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglion, carries AP towards the CNS from the cell body: Psuedounipolar Neurons
No DENDRITES: Psuedounipolar Neurons
All _____________ are derived from embronic neural crest--all are PNS neurons. Psuedounipolar Neurons
Functional Component of GSE Multipolar Neurons
Neurons which Deliver common Pathway neurons: Pyramidal tract , spastic parlysis, Extra Pyramidal tracts, Multipolar Motor Neurons.
Primary Afferent Neurons Psuedounipolar Neurons.
Messners corpuscles, Discriminating touch, pacinian corpuscles. Ruffini End organs Psuedounipolar Neurons (Primary Affernet Neurons)
These neurons possess some manner of receptive device on the peripheral end of their axon as a part or extension of theselves Primary Afferent Neurons, Pseudounipolar neurons.
Muslce spindles and golgi tendons, Tast buds, organs of corti, free nerve endings Primary Afferent Neurons, AKA: Pseudounipolar N.
Posess a cell body and a single axon which bifurcates as the peripheral process and the Central process Primary afferent Neuron, (Psuedounipolar neuron)
Deliver information concerning environment internal or external, to the CNS psuedounipolar Neuron.
Second, Third and fourth afferent Neurons Multipolar Neurons
Deliver sensory information from the spinal cord toward the brain for further processing: Multipolar Neurons
Sensory information only becomes conscious at the level of the _______ Thalamus.
Small multipolar neurons, usually completely confined to gray matter Interneurons.
Shuttle information btwn, afferent and efferent neurons Interneurons.
Involved in reflex control Interneurons.
Interneurons may be_______or ________ Exitatory or Inhibitory
Mainly confined to the CNS though examples of PNS___________ can be found Interneurons.
All neurons of the ANS are ________ Efferent, GVE
All neurons of the ANS are ________ Multipolar
Preganglionic Neurons are all_______ Myelinated.
Sympathetic preganglionic axons travel from their cell bodies __-___ or __ through____Rami T1-l2- or L3, White.
Sympathetic preganglionic axons synapse with postganglionic cells in the ____________or pass through the chain ganglia to become _________nerves. Sympathetic chain ganglia, splanchnic.
Parasympathetic Preganglionic acons travel from their cell bodies in cranial Nerve nuclei, __,__,__,__ or in the ____________(s2-s4) CN 3,7,9,10 , Sacral parasympathetic Nuclei.
Sacral Parasympathetic nuclei directly to postganglionic cell bodies whic husually reside in or near the _______they innervate Organ.
Post ganglionic Neurons
All Postganglionic Neuronal axons are: Unmyelinated.
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons exist in the sympathetic chain or in the ___________ ganglia. Prevertebral.
Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons exist usually in __________ganglia AKA: Auerbachs Plexuses. Intramural
Cell bodies of all autonomic Ganglia are Multipolar
Support the functions of the neurons: Neuroglial cells.
Neuroglial cells of the PNS Satellite cells, Schwann cells.
Satellite cells are found in: Ganglia of the PNS( Dorsal root ganglia)
Thought to have a nutritive role, shuttling nutrients from extra cellular space into te cells. Satellite cells.
Involved in removal of waste from the cells. Compared to postion to the protoplasmic astrocytes. Satellite cells.
Cells are found in bothe ganglia and nerves. Schwann cells.
Associated with the unmyelinated axons, and all axons of the PNS Schwann cells.
Playing a key role in repair of damaged axons: Schwann cells.
Pink cells: Schwann cells.
Neuroglial cells of CNS: Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, Microglia, ependymal cells.
Only cell type not derviced from the neural tube. Instead derived from monocytes (mesenchyme) Microglia.
Macrophages of CNS, are also associated with vascular elements. Microglia.
Are epithelium like, line free surfaces in the CNS, produce CSF. Ependymal cells.
Fibrous astrocytes found in the White matter
Protoplasmic Astrocytes found only in the Gray Matter.
Type of Neuroglial cell that form a glial scar: Astrocyte.
Neuroglial CNS cell found in white matter and gray matter. Oligodendrocyte.
Axons: One;branches typically at the terminal end. Multipolar
Axons: One; branches near the cell body into a peripheral process and central process. Psuedounipolar.
Cell bodies: Basically, large and small; Large= myelinated axons, touch and proprioception Small= unmyelinated axons, pain and temperature. Psuedounipolar.
Cell Bodies: Various shapes and sizes, note Pramidal cells and Purkinje cells. Multipolar
No Dendrites Primary Afferent.
Many Dendrites, frequent branch points, occasionally exhibit spines to increase surface area. Multipolar
PNS Examples: GSE, pre-and post GVE Multipolar
PNS Examples: GSA, GVA, Primary Afferent neurons. Psuedounipolar
Motor/Efferent examples Pyramidal, Extra pyramidal, GSE, GVE pre and post Ganglionic Multipolar.
Sensory/ Afferent Examples: Second, Third, fourth order afferent tract neurons Multipolar.
Sensory/Afferent Examples: Primary Afferent Neurons, GSA, GVA Psuedounipolar Neurons.
All pre-ganglionic GVE neurons have ______axons Myelinated .
Diameter effects (Axons or Dendrites causes)of myelin increase diameter decrease resistance increase conduction and the damageing effects of demyelinating deseases like MS. Axons
Tapering diameter effect from cell body to erminal, current travels from high to low resistance, therefore current will travel toward the cell body. Dendrites
Has the abillity to carry action potential Axon
Do not exhibit voltage dependent ion channels Dendrites
Chemically dependent channels for Axons Yes or no? Yes
For Dendrites, chemically dependent channels? Yes or No? Yes
Voltage dependent channels? Yes or no for Dendrites? No
Passive channels for Axons and dendrites, both?Yes or No Yes
All neurons whose cell bodies are in the CNS are derived from the: Mantle zone, Neural tube.
All neurons whose cell bodies are in the PNS are derived from: Neural Crest.
True or False? All cells require passive ion channels for maintaining resting potential. True.
Voltage dependent channels are all or noe, the sodium channel creates the spike potential of action potential. True or False? True
True or False? Chemically dependent ion channels are not all or none, they mediate EPSPs, IPSps, and MEPPs. True
Schwann cells originate at site of: Neural crest; PNS.
Oligodendrocytes origin and site are: Ependymal layer, neural tube; CNS
Function of Schwann cells are: Associated with all types of PNS axons; myelinates a piece of one axon
Oligodendrocytes functions are : Myelinates pieces of many axons.
Schwann cells may be found in : Ganglia and nerves
Oligodendrocytes may be found in: Gray and White matter.
Red II fibers have high myoglobin True.
White II fibers have ______ Low, myoglobin.
Glycolytic activity for Red II fibers are Low
Created by: Study Mastery
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