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Unit 10

Unti 10 - Human Rights, Civil Rights, Women's Rights, (India, South Africa)

India before independence  Mostly Hindu; large Muslim minority  1919 - Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms – working toward self-gov’t  A system of gov’t called dyarchy was formed  Indians controlled health, education and agriculture  British controlled finance and law and order
India before independence  Allies talks of self-determination at the end of World War I were taken seriously here
Amritsar, 1919 In response to the Rowlatt Act (huge power allowed to stop “seditious activity”)an anti-British protest took placeThe holiest city for the SikhsFired on crowd of 5000 unarmed citizens British overreacted ,379 killed,1000 wounded British leader fired
Self Rule and the Salt March, 1929 In protest to the British tax on salt, Gandhi walked from Sabarmati, Ashram to Dandi, Gujarat to get salt (240 miles)Many thousands followed himThe march lasts March 12 to April 6, 1930. Draws support for the independence movement across India/world
Self Rule and the Salt March, 1929  Gandhi is arrested and put in prison
Mohandas Ghandi Leader of the Indian Congress PartyLed with a style of protest known as pacifism (non-violent resistance)Symbol=spinning wheelLawyer trained in South AfricaHis right hand man is Jawaharlal NehruBelieved Hindus + Muslims could share independent India
Mohandas Ghand  Declare independence for India on Jan. 26, 1930 Begin civil disobedience When in jail, went on hunger strike British couldn’t let him die—too popular Is assassinated by a fellow Hindu after the partition of 1947
Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League, 1947-48  Jinnah was chosen to administer the Muslim sections of the partition  First wants unity, but later forms the Muslim league asking for a separate country  (Pakistan movement)  Died on Sept. 11—celebrated as a national holiday in Pakistan
Partition In 1947 the British decided to end their involvement in India They decided to divide the country India for the Sikhs and Hindus and Pakistan (east and west) for the Muslims Jinnah was to administar Pakistan, Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India
Partition  500,000 people killed during the mass movement of populations
India and Pakistan (Bangladesh) -The division separated millions of Muslims from one another-State of Pakistan (east and west) are formed on either side of the Indian sub-continent-East Pakistan becomes Bangladesh-Kashmir still sore,and disputed territory between India and Pakistan
Benazir Bhutto -Leader of the resistance to the military regime in Pakistan-First woman to lead an Islamic state -Focusses on Improving health,Social welfare, Education for the underprivileged
Apartheid and South African Human Rights Violations -All-white National Party comes to power in 1948 (even tho minority)-used Apartheid (separate or apart)-Doctrine of white supremacy and separate development -Non-whites South Africans couldn't marry outside of their own race live or travel where they want
Apartheid and South African Human Rights Violations -The whites made up 15% of the population yet owned 87% of the land -Non-whites were forced to live on Bantustans (homeland “reserves” for blacks) -Enforced by the army and police force
African National Congress (ANC) -The most prominent resistance to Apartheid -Leaders were often jailed -Wanted to create a non-racial democracy -The National Party portrayed the ANC as a Communist organization
Nelson Mandela -Became the leader of the African National Congress -Was arrested in 1964 and put in prison for life-Was let out in 1990-Won a Nobel peace prize in 1993-Elected as President of South Africa (first black ever)in 1994(F.W. de Klerk his jailer was his dept.
Role of the United Nations (UN) In 1952 the UN condemned the apartheid systemThey continued to oppose it every year in the General Assembly1962 UN tried to organize economic sanctions against S.A.Many leading industrial nations refuse to participate
Role of the United Nations (UN)  In the 1980’s they declared apartheid to be a crime against humanity  1961 Many in the British Commonwealth wanted to expel S.A., instead they withdrew
Pass Laws  Pass laws controlled the movement and employment of blacks  They were forced to carry “reference books” of identity papers
Sharpeville Massacre, 1960  In 1960 blacks formed outside a police station in Sharpeville to protest the pass laws  They burnt their reference books, and even themselves  The police opened fire on the crowd  67 demonstrators were killed  The ANC was outlawed
Sharpeville Massacre, 1960....continued Ended the non-violence movements Underground organization sprung up that engaged in terrorist attacks against symbolic targets Passed a law saying police could arrest without warrant1964, Nelson Mandela,leader of the ANC is arrested for life in prison
Soweto Massacre, 1976  1976 black students protested that they had to be educated in Afrikaans Revolt in Soweto and other townships resulted in as many as 575 deaths Prominent youth leader Steve Biko was beaten to death by police Youth became very active in the ANC after
Soweto Massacre, 1976  “Total Strategy” was devoloped where they sabotaged SA cities  Civil disobedience, strikes, boycotts and even more violent measures continued and increased
The End of Apartheid: 1980s and 1990s  1978 Prime Minister P.W. Botha made reforms  Blacks could marry whom they pleased, mix in certain places and join unions
Background to the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S. Blacks had been freed from slavery since 1860’s By 1950’s, not much changed—still separate socially, economically & politically Segregated schools, transportation & restaurants Ghettos sprang up in northern citiesKu Klux Klan harassed,murdered blacks
Background to the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S. -1954 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled to desegregate schools, then parks, housing, buses and air terminals -1960’s a time of rebellion government (Counterculture) -Black sports personalities become well-known & popular, e.g. Jackie Robinson, Mohammed Ali
Little Rock 1957—black children tried to go to school at Little Rock High School(still had integrated schooling)Governor of Arkansas(Orval Faubus)used the National Guard to stop themMayor of the city(Woodrow Mann)called on Pres.Eisenhower brings in federal trroops
Little Rock  Eventually troops from the 101st airborne were used to protect black children while going to school  White citizens were angry; school board closed all three high schools for a whole year; they re-opened as fully integrated schools.
Martin Luther King  He first becomes prominent in 1955 organizing a boycott of the transit over the jailing of Rosa Parks. (The bus company went bankrupt.) Unofficial leader of the black protest movement  Advocated peaceful demonstrations
Martin Luther King  Blacks saw their cause gaining sympathy when police beatings of blacks were shown on TV  1963—Famous “I have a dream” speech in Washington  1967—awarded Nobel Peace Prize  1968—assassinated
Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society  Johnson convinces Congress to pass Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill Great Society goals: eliminate racial inequality & injustice Allowed gov’t to cut off funding to any program that practiced discrimination
Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society  Created VISTA to battle poverty & Job Corps to help train young ppl for jobs  The Voting Rights Act—outlawed the literacy tests needed in order to register to vote
Malcolm X  Became leader of the Black Muslims in the USA  Blacks rejected Christianity as a “white” religion  He had contempt for those who followed Martin Luther King’s pacifist methods
Malcolm X  Believed that blacks should protest with force  Assassinated in 1965, possibly b/c of disputes with the black Muslim Movement
Black Panther Party Founded by Stokely Carmichael Militant group which openly called for the use of violence “Minister of War” was Bobby Seale and “Minister of Propaganda” was Eldridge Cleaver Group fizzled out in the 1970’s as more equality legislation was brought in
Universal Suffrage and the Right to Vote  In 1900 only one country allowed women to vote  In 1950, 69 countries allowed women to vote  In 1975, 129 countries allowed women to vote
Margaret Thatcher (The Falkland Islands War, 1982)  Known as the ‘Iron Lady’  First woman to be elected Prime Minister in UK  Conservative party , in office 1979-1990  Won three consecutive elections  Reduced power of Unions  Gov’t stayed out of economics
Margaret Thatcher (The Falkland Islands War, 1982)  Individuals were given greater freedoms  Reduced public expenditures  Took action when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands—made her very popular  Promoted independence for Mozambique
Golda Meir First woman to lead a modern stateBorn in Russia, emigrated to Palestine,1915Prime Minister of Israel 1969—1974Helped plan strategy with Yom Kippur WarSeen as hard-linerApproved “Operation Golden to hunt down killers of Israelis at Munich Olympics
Birth Control Till 1968, Roman Catholic Church forbade Catholic women from using birth controlBy the late 1960’s almost all women had access to birth controlIt was seen as a major progression because it gave them control over their reproductive role,
Birth Control - if/when they wanted to be mothers -their careers
Equal Pay It became a major issue after women were given the voteWorld War II necessitated using more female workersAfter WWII, they did not return to their traditional role 20 years ago, women working full time only earned 64% of what men earned
Equal Pay  “Pink Collar Syndrome”—women tended to be secretaries  47% of single mothers in US live below the poverty line  Pay equity may not come until more women enter politics
Created by: drolston