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Respiratory sys I

UBSDM 2015 Histology

QuestionAnswer
Respiratory System – Functions Air Conduction, Air Filtration/Conditioning, Gas Exchange, Phonation in larynx. Olfaction in nasal cavity (limited endocrine function)
Conduction Portion Pathway for ambient air and Carbon dioxide rich air in and out of the body.
Respiratory System Location of gas exchange in the lungs. Starts in respiratory bronchioles down to alveoli.
General Features of Respiratory System Tubular organs with 4 layers. Mucosa, Submucosa, Cartilage and Smooth muscle, & Adventitia.
Respiratory Mucosa Faces lumen and contains respiratory epithelium, some CT, Lamina propria. 5 Distinct Cell Types.
Respiratory Mucosa – Epithelium pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, Each cell has ~300 cilia. Used to push mucus out to lungs. Covered in mucus that catches fine particles.
Immobile Cilia Syndrome (Kartagener’s Syndrome) Dynein – or molecular cilia motor- is deficient and cilia don’t move. Particulate matter enters the lungs.
Respiratory Mucosa – Goblet Cell Secretes mucin glycoproteins and helps moisten epithelium.
Respiratory Mucosa – Brush Cells Distinguishable by numerous Microvilli on apical surface. May have sensory function as axons are associated with cells
Respiratory Mucosa – Basal (Short) Cells Progenitor cells of respiratory system
Respiratory Mucosa – Small Granule Cell Similar to basal Cell. Contains dense granules EM level. Help control serous & Mucus secretions by polypeptide hormones.
Respiratory Submucosa Loose CT with varying elastic and collagen fibers. Many blood vessels and nerves nourish Respiratory Mucosa. Combines with lamina propria in smaller tubules.
Nasal Cavity – External Vestibule Non-keratinized squamous epithelium. Transitional from Skin to respiratory membrane. Sebaceous & Sweat glands moisten the membrane. Vibrissiae are long hairs that catch large particles and make boogers.
Nasal Cavity – Nasal Fossa 2 big chambers in skull separated by nasal septum. Lateral walls made of conchae.
Nasal Cavity – Superior Concha – Sustentacular Cell Columnar Cell with microvilli that supports olfactory receptor cells and secrete odorant-binding protein.
Nasal Cavity – Superior Concha – Basal Cell Small cells that regenerate other cells
Nasal Cavity – Superior Concha – Olfactory Cell Bipolar neurons with non-motile cilia.
Nasal Cavity – Superior Concha – Olfactory Glands of Bowman Keep olfactory surface moist so scent molecules can dissolve and be detected.
Nasal Cavity – Middle/Inferior Concha Normal Respiratory Epithelium. Swell bodies (venous plexuses) cause unilateral airflow to allow epithelium to rehydrate, preventing desiccation.
Paranasal Sinuses frontal, ethmoid, maxillary(prone to infection), sphenoid bones. Respi¬ratory epithelium with many goblet cells, thin lamina propria, submucosa on periosteum. Mucus in the sinuses drains into the nasal cavity through small openings. Blockage=headache
Nasopharynx Cilia, in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the nasopharynx, move the dust-laden mucus towards the mouth for expulsion. Connects to Auditory Tubes. Surrounded by diffuse lymphoid tissue
Larynx – Mucosa Loosely adherent to cartilaginous frame. Posterior surface of epiglottis epithelium is attached to two folds tightly- The vocal folds.
Larynx – Vocal Folds Covered in stratified partially keratinized epithelium unlike rest of larynx. The superior portion of epiglottis is covered the same.
Larynx – Submucosa Beneath the epithelium of the true vocal folds lie bundles of parallel elastic fibers, the vocal ligament. These bands are strung between the underlying cartilage like the strings on a guitar. Mucous and serous glands are present within the submucosa.
Larynx – Cartilage Two sets of 3 paired and 3 unpaired cartilages. Unpaired are thyroid and cricoid (hyaline) & epiglottal (elastic). 3 paired are arytenoid (Hyaline & Elastic), corniculate & cuniform (elastic)
Larynx – Muscle Extrinsic- Support and surround it with muscle and ligaments. Intrinsic- Skeletal muscles.
Larynx – Vocalis Muscle (part of the thyro-arytenoid muscle) underlies the vocal ligament and functions to regulate the tension of the folds and their ligaments, thus, producing various pitches of sound.
Trachea – Mucosa The mucosa is of the pseudostratified ciliated columnar type which rests on a thick basal lamina. A thick band of elas¬tic fibers separates the lamina propria from the submucosa.
Trachea – Submucosa region contains a plexus of arteries, veins, nerves, and mucoserous glands
Trachea – Cartilage and Muscle 15-20 “C-shaped” rings of hyaline cartilage. Open end is posterior and bound by trachealis muscle.
Trachea – Adventitia The fibrous connective tissue covering over the trachea binds firmly to the cartilage and muscle. The C-shaped cartilages, muscle, and fibrous connective tissue have been sometimes referred to as the adventitial layer.
Bronchial Tree Complex of branching tubes in lungs. Cartilage and glands decline as bronchi shrink. Layers become indistinct. Elastic fibers increase though.
Bronchi The trachea divides into two primary bronchi that further subdivide into lobar bronchi (3 in right lung and 2 in left lung), and then into segmental bronchi.
Bronchi – Mucosa Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with a prominent basal lamina. Goblet cells are numerous. There are many elastic fibers in the lamina propria along with a criss¬crossing bundle of spirally arranged smooth muscle. Numerous Lymph Nodules
Bronchi – Smooth Muscle Changes the diameter of bronchi, results in asthma. After death contract to give bronchi a convoluted appearance.
Bronchi – Submucosa Mixed glands appear in the submucosa between the muscle and cartilage and extend through the bronchial tree as far down as the cartilage
Bronchi – Cartilage Hyaline cartilage is present appearing as complete rings within primary bronchi. Secondary (intrapulmonary) bronchi have plates of cartilage
Bronchi – Adventitia Fibrous Connective Tissue lining is continuous with esophagus’
Bronchioles Very Small intralobular tubes with diameter >5mm. Epithelium goes from respiratory to cuboidal. Lamina propria contains elastic fibers and smooth muscle. A definite submu¬cosa is absent as is the layer of cartilage
Bronchioles – Clara Cell Within epithelium of terminal bronchiole. Contains apical secretory granules of lipoproteins to protect surface.
Bronchioles – Neuroepithelial bodies ~90 cells containing secretory granules. Attached to cholinergic nerves. Sympathetic causes dilation. Parasympathetic causes constriction. Respiratory Bronchioles
Alveolar Duct Numerous Alveoli branch off. Very thin squamous epithelial lining. Knobs of smooth muscle lie in lamina propria. Elastic and collagen are in lamina propria
Alveoli Sac-like evaginations- 200 µm in diameter- where gas exchange takes place. Lined by simple squamous Type 1 pneumocytes. Interstitium between alveoli is filled with capillaries, Collagen/elastic fibers, macrophages, & fibroblasts.
Emphysema Destruction of interalveolar septum. Results in large cyst-like alveoli in which the elastic framework has been extensively damaged. Very common in older people. Directly linked to extensive air pollution and smoking
Blood-air-barrier Thin barrier composed of Type-1 Pneumocytes (simple squamous), single basal lamina of fused endothelium of capillary and pneumocyte. Gas exchange is diffuse, driven by difference in partial pressure.
Type-1 Pneumocyte 95% of alveoli surface. Simple Squamous. Organelles are clustered around nucleus. Pinocytotic vesicles bring in particles and pass them to macrophages
Type-2 pneumocyte (Greater Alveolar or Septal Cells) Cuboidal Cell w/ short microvilli. Creates surfactant.
Surfactant Phospholipid film with high concentration of dipalitoyl lecithin. Decreases surface tension of alveoli which decreases work required to inflate lungs.
Hyaline Membrane Disease Premature infants that have insufficient amounts of surfactant.
Alveolar Macrophage (Dust Cell) Derived from monocyte. Found in interalveolar septum or lumen. Surface receptors are IgG and Cb3. Ingest bacteria. Signal Neutrophils to help. 2mil/hour can be coughed out.
Alveolar Contractile Cells Basal surface of alveolar epithelium. React to antiactin and antimyosin antibodies and decrease lumen size.
Blood Supply of Lungs Bronchial arteries and veins. Extensive network of lymphatics.
Created by: speedy2782