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APUSH Unit 4

APUSH Unit 4 Test Review

What were two other names for the Jacksonian Democracy? Rise of the Common Man & Mass Democracy
What were the three characteristics of Jacksonian Democracy? political & social democracy, rapid expansion of the West, president as representative of all the people
What was the example of political democracy during Jackson's presidency? universal manhood suffrage - vote to all men regardless of property
What was the example of social democracy during Jackson's presidency? decline of deference - power of opinion in the hands of common man
What did Jackson set up to deal with the BUS? wildcat banks/"pet banks" - lots of speculation
How did Jackson contribute to the boom/bust economy during his presidency? put all the money from the BUS into "pet banks" without the constitutional authority to do so - censured by the Senate
What two events resulted from the "pet banks"? Bank War & Panic of 1837
What court case was associated with the Trail of Tears and what did it state? Worcestor vs. Georgia - in favor of Cherokee
What was the Trail of Tears? Cherokee forced to move to OK
What was Jackson's view of the presidency? emphasizes leadership of the executive branch in the interests of the people - increases presidential power
How did Jackson defy the other two branches of government? freely vetoed congressional bills (12 vetoes) & feuded openly with the Supreme Court (ignored SC ruling in Cherokee case)
What was Jackson's greatest legacy? solving the Nullification Crisis of 1832 without a Civil War
What are the dates for the Age of Jackson? 1828-1840
What was Jackson's reform regarding the selection of presidential candidates? national convention attended by state delegates was used instead of the state legislatures
What was Jackson's reform regarding the election of the president? popular vote instead of state legislatures - overall increase in number of elected officials
What was the Spoils System? repayment of political debts by appointment of "friends" to office
What was one of the main economic aspects of Jacksonian Democracy? gap b/w rich and poor widens in NE due to early industrialization
What were the causes of the Panic of 1837? excessive western land speculation, destruction of 2nd BUS, wheat failures due to the "Hessian fly", British bank failures
Who were the candidates for the Election of 1824? Jackson (most popular), JQ Adams, Crawford, Clay
What was the Corrupt Bargain? JQ Adams won the Election of 1824 due to Clay's efforts even though Jackson was more popular
What was the Tariff of Abominations? tariff put on imported goods to promote industry in the North
What was the significance of John C. Calhoun and the South Carolina Exposition & Protest? Nullification Crisis - state can deem a federal law unconstitutional
What was the significance of "concurrent majority"? set up to prevent the tyranny of the majority
What was the significance of Daniel Webster and the "Perpetual Union" Theory? states cannot secede from the Union - rebutted the ideas of Hayne
Which two parties comprised the Second Party System? Whigs & Democrats
Who was the leader of the Second Great Awakening? Charles Finney - evangelical revivalist
What were the views of the Unitarians on the Second Great Awakening? did not support it at all
Who were the most influential in the NE during the Second Great Awakening? Presbyterians & Congregationalists
What was the significance of the Temperance Movement? alcohol prohibition
What were the duties of women in the Cult of True Womanhood? piety, purity, submission, domesticity
The Cult of True Womanhood was not __________. inquisitive
Who was Horace Mann? father of education - promoted public schools
What were the McGuffey readers? textbooks of the day
What were the ideas of Cesare Beccaria? "prison reform is better than capital punishment"
Who was Dorothea Dix? established a prison asylum
What major movement was linked to abolitionism? Women's Rights Movement
Who were the major leaders in the Women's Rights Movement? Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony
What was the Seneca Falls Convention? launched Women's Rights Movement, women gathered to declare their rights
Who was the advocate for utopian socialism and where was his utopian society? Robert Owen - New Harmony, IN
Who was Charles Fourier? French advocate of utopian socialism
What was the society set up by John Humphrey Noyes? Oneida Community
Who began the Mormon religion? Joseph Smith
What did Brigham Young do? sent the Mormons to Utah
What did Mother Ann Lee do? created the Shakers society
Who were the two major advocates of transcendentalism? Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau
What did Ralph Waldo Emerson write? essay on self reliance
What did Henry David Thoreau write? Walden
What did Alexis deTocqueville write? Democracy in America
What did Democracy in America address? Tyranny of the Majority & the American Paradox
wrote "The American Scholar" & "Self Reliance" Ralph Waldo Emerson
wrote Walden & "Civil Disobedience" Henry David Thoreau
established the Oneida Community John Humphrey Noyes
worshiped by the Shakers as the female incarnation of God Ann Lee
French advocate of "Phalanxes" Charles Fourier
founded New Harmony Robert Owen
greatest revivalist of the Second Great Awakening Charles Finney
"father" of the Public School Movement Horace Mann
author of famous reader used by school children in the 19th century William McGuffey
Italian who wrote for prison reform & against capital punishment Cessare Becarria
argued for separate asylums for the mentally ill Dorthea Dix
for women's suffrage, refused to include "obey" in marriage vows Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Quaker who helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention Lucretia Mott
founder of the Mormons Joseph Smith
led the Mormons to Utah Brigham Young
wrote Democracy in America Alexis de Tocqueville
best example of a successful Fourier Phalanx North American Phalanx
followers of a Calvinistic Baptist minister who taught that the 2nd coming of Christ would come in 1844 Millerites
taught that God had one been a man and that all men can become divine Mormonism
% of schoolchildren in this area about 70% North
% of schoolchildren in this area bout 33% South
first of the new penitentiaries or criminal asylums in 1821 Auburn, NY
first of the new mental asylums established in 1833 Worcester, MA
forbade sale of intoxicating beverages Maine Law of 1851
site of the first women's rights convention Seneca Falls, NY
female editor of Godey's Ladies Book Sarah Josepha Hale
opened the first school for pupils with hearing impediments Thomas Gallaudet
believed to contribute to moral regeneration of the inmate solitary confinement
influential Unitarian minister William Ellery Channing
What was the origin of the Reform Movement? restoring order to a society made disorderly by economic & social change - growth of industry & cities
What was the purpose of the Reform Movement? impose moral direction on these social, cultural, & economic changes through individual & institutional reform
Where was the Reform Movement centered? in da North
What was the prime motivating source behind reform? religion - Protestants & Christians
What are the characteristics of reform? change for the better, gradually, partially, peacefully
What are the characteristics of revolution? entire system must go, NOW, violence is justified
What are the prerequisites for reform? system that allows reform, belief that reform is possible
What are the prerequisites for revolution? oppressing system that tolerates no opposition, belief that reform is not possible
How did urbanization & industrialization lead to the rise of reform movements? industrialization & urbanization much more pronounced in the North before Civil War --> reform movements
How did the emergence of public schools contribute to reform movements? must be able to read signs, papers, etc.
How did the prominence of the mentally ill & criminals contribute to reform movements? more in a city - more asylums & prison reforms
How did the desire for women's rights contribute to the reform movement? middle/upper class that are educated demand equal rights
What were the other causes of the reform movements? Jacksonian Democracy & Second Great Awakening
Who led the Democratic Party? Martin van Buren
Who comprised the Democratic Party? small property owners, wage earners, small southern planters, some businessmen
Who founded the Democratic Party? Jackson
What were the principles of the Democratic Party? broadened suffrage, opposition of the BUS, territorial expansion, advocacy of free competition, pro-slavery, states' rights, strict constitution
Were the Whigs Catholic? NO
Who founded the Whigs? Clay & Webster
Who comprised the Whigs? commercial, banking, business interests, large southern planters, western farmers
What were the principles of the Whigs? BUS, high tariff, internal improvements, conservatism, national power, loose construction, anti-slavery, anti-expansionist
Which party, Whigs or Democrats, was more united? Democrats
Which party was comprised more of the evangelical Protestants? Whigs
Which party attended more of a ritualized service? Democrats
Which party favored classes who enjoued traditional amusements that were condemned by the moral reformers? Democrats
Which party advocated smaller cities devoted to market farming? Whigs
Which party restrained individualism and enforced values derived from Puritan tradition? Whigs
Who was the leading advocate of Manifest Destiny? James Polk
What was the goal of Manifest Destiny? extend democracy, future need for land, God destined it, racism against Indians & Mexicans
Which states comprised the Mexican Southwest? NM & CA
What is the significance of the Oregon Territory? Oregon Trail, "54 40 or fight" (wanted ALL of Oregon), ceded by Britain
What were the sources of tension regarding the annexation of Texas? religion, slavery, & province within Mexico
Why did the Whigs turn against John Tyler? he opposed the entire Whig legislature program
When was the Mexican War? 1846-1848
What was the cause of the Mexican War? US wanted CA, NM, etc & border dispute (Nueces vs. Rio Grande) of Texas, Mexican failure to pay debts to US for damages
Which general "started" the Mexican War? Zachary Taylor
What was the most famous battle of the Mexican War? Battle of Buena Vista
What ended the Mexican War? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? Mexican Cession - reopens slave vs. free debate**, Rio Grande is the border
Who opposed the Mexican War? Lincoln ("Mr. Polk's War") & Henry David Thoreau ("An Essay on Civil Disobedience")
Did Polk deliberately provoke war with Mexico? NO! - he only wanted California and war seemed like the only option
Who was Frederick Jackson Turner? wrote the frontier thesis
Supreme Court ruled that Georgia law could not be enforced in the Cherokee Nation Worcester vs. Georgia
established boundary of Maine; US gained more land Webster-Ashburton Treaty
decree that required all public lands to be purchased with "hard" money Specie Circular
sent to Mexico City to offer $25 million for CA and territory to the east John Slidell
banks in which Jackson deposited federal money; chief weapon in his struggle with the US bank "pet banks"
SC senator who sought to safeguard minority interests in the Southin a debate with Webster Robert Hayne
former TN governor; tragic marriage, alcoholism, lived with Indians, Texas commander-in-chief Sam Houston
two American generals who led the main invasion forces in Mexico Zachary Taylor & Winfield Scott
vetoed by Jackson, would have provided funds for internal improvements & infrastructure Maysville Road Bill
guide who accompanied Fremont; showed Kearny the way from Santa Fe to CA Kit Carson
first state law to ban the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages (prohibition) Maine Law of 1851
two able and experienced leaders of the Whigs who had hoped to govern through a weak president Daniel Webster & Henry Clay
term used by de Tocqueville in Democracy in America which described why, although individuals have legal freedom in American democracy, there is great pressure for them to conform tyranny of the majority
left "obey" out of her marriage ceremony; advocated women's suffrage Elizabeth Cady Stanton
wrote Birds of America John James Audubon
edited a transcendentalist journal Margaret Fuller
opposed prisons for confinement of the insane Dorothea Dix
Quaker, woman delegates to London anti-slavery conference not recognized Lucretia Mott
sisters who spoke at anti-slavery gatherings Angelina & Sarah Grimke
wrote of the rugged individual; hero - Natty Bumpo James Fenimore Cooper
wrote Knickerbocker's History of New York Washinton Irving
excelled in the horror short story Edgar Allan Poe
wrote Walden Henry David Thoreau
said "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies beyond."; transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson
vice president under Jackson, changed from a nationalist to a Southern sectionalist John C. Calhoun
first dark horse candidate to be nominated for the presidency James K. Polk
daughter of a Washington boardinghouse keeper who married Secretary of War under Jackson Peggy Eaton
most talented actress of the 1800s Charlotte Cushman
woman author who wrote on living within one's income in response to the 1837 economic panic Hannah Forsham Lee
raised money to launch a "female seminary", now Mount Holyoke College Mary Lyon
fur trader and real-estate speculator millionaire John Jacob Astor
What did the Kansas Treaty promote? railroad system
What prevents the Tyranny of the Majority and protects minorities? federalism
first professional architect in the US; completed the Capitol building in DC; cathedral in Baltimore Benjamin Henry Latrobe
MO senator, expansionist, wanted to stand up to Britain over the Oregon Territory issue Thomas Hart Benton
ignored the Supreme Court's protection of the SE Indian tribes Andrew Jackson
New Yorker, president, architect of Independent Treasury Bill Martin van Buren
lost the 1828 election to Jackson John Quincy Adams
first vice-president to become president when a president died John Tyler
first president to die while in office, gets Tyler into presidency William Harrison
granted land tract by Mexico to bring in settlers of the Roman Catholic faith Stephen F. Austin
helped overthrow Mexican rule in CA John C. Fremont
born a slave, freed in 1810, mountain man in VA, lived among the Crow Indians in the W, member of Gen. Kearney's forces in CA James Beckwith
KY anti-slavery leader, presidential candidate of Liberty party in 1840, free soil platform James Birney
Created by: Tiffanyy