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Chapter 3 Terms for AP Gov/Politics

Article 6 A provision of the Constitution that makes the laws and treaties of the federal government the supreme law of the land.
Block Grants Grants given by the federal government to state and local authorities for a general purpose.
Categorical Grants Grants given by the federal government to state and local authorities for a specific purpose.
Confederation (Confederal System) A form of government in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of states and local governments.
Conditions of Aid A condition which a state government must fulfill for taking federal funds.
Devolution The effort on the part of the national government to pass responsibility for functions and responsibilities previously held by the national government on to the state governments.
Dual Federalism An interpretation of the Constitution which holds that states are as supreme within their sphere of power as is the federal government within its sphere of power.
Federal System A form of government in which sovereignty is shared, so that on some matters the national government is supreme and on oters the states are supreme.
Fedralism A division of power between a national and regional governments.
Grants in Aid Federal funds provided to states and localities.
Intergovernmental Lobby Lobbying activities by state and local officials who establish offices in Washington, DC to comete for federal funds.
Mandates Requirements imposed against state and local governments to perform. The requirements may have nothing to do with the receipt of federal funds adn may originate from court orders.
McCulloch v Maryland A Supreme Court decision that settled two issues. Congress can exercise powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution if the power can be implied from an enumerated one (Necessary and Proper Clause). Second, the federal government cannot be taxed.
Necessary and Proper Clause The final paragraph of Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws necessary and proper to carry out the enumerated powers.
Nullification A doctrine esposed on behalf of the states' rights position which holds that states are empowered to void federal laws considered to be in violation of the Constitution.
Revenue Sharing A grant in aid program that allowed states maximum discretion in the spending of federal funds.
Sovereignty The supreme or ultimate political authority.
Tenth Amendment An amendment to the Constitution which defines the powers of the states, stipulating that the states retain all powers not specifically delegated to the national government by the Constitution.
Unitary System A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government, so that subnational units are dependent on its will.
Created by: onekasaur