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Histology Blood Vess

UMDNJSOM

QuestionAnswer
Blood Vessels function Transport blood to and from tissues Bidirectionally. Includes arteries, veins, and capillaries
Lymphatic Vasculature function Collect and return excess extracellular fluid to the bloodstream unidirectionally. Includes lymphatic vessels and lympathic capillaries.
Tunica Intima Innermost layer facing lumen. Simple Squamous. Basal Lamina.
Tunica Media Middle Layer. Circumferentially arranged Smooth muscle and fibroelastic CT. Smooth muscle produces extracellular components.
Tunica Adventitia Outermost Layer. CT, Collagen, Elastic Fibers. Vaso Vasorum and Nervi Vascularis maintain components of the walls.
Arteries Bring blood from heart to tissues. Thicker tunica media than veins. Regularly Shaped lumen. Three Types.
Elastic Arteries Largest. Elastic Lamellae that compensate for changes in pressure. found in vessels directly leaving heart. Internal elastic membrane separates TI from TM. External elastic separates TM from TA.
Tunica Adventitia of elastic arteries Contains nerves and vaso vasorum, which are small blood vessels that supply to the walls
Tunica Intima of elastic arteries Endothelium with various amounts of underlying CT. Weibel Palade bodies, rod like organelles that contain von willebrand factor found in endothelial cells.
Tunica MEdia of Elastic arteries Circularly arranged SM with fenestrated elastic sheets. SM synthesize collagen and elastin.
Muscular Arteries Middle. Distributing vessels that allow selective allocation of blood to organs depending on the need. TI thinner, prominent IEM. TM less elastic, more SM. TA thick, separated from TM by EEM.
Small Arteries and Arterioles Smallest. Regulate distribution of blood to capillary beds using vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Small arteries have 8-10 SM layers. Arterioles have 1-2 layers.
Capillaries One layer of highly permeable endothelial cells. continuous, fenestrated, discontinuous.
Continous Capillaries muscle, lung, CNS, heart, Skeletal muscle, most organs. Transcytosis by pinocytocic vesicles.
Fenestrated Capillaries endocrine glands. Pinocytotic vesicles. Less inhibited than continuous. Tissues with fluid transport.
Discontinuous Capillaries Liver, spleen, marrow. pore like basal lamina. allow passage of large molecules in places where you have a ton of exchange. called sinusoids. irregular.
Normal route and the exceptions Arteries>capillaries>Veins. Arteriovenous anastomose(AV SHUNT) and Metarteriole.
Veins Convey blood form body tissues to the heart.
Veins vs Arteries Veins have thinner wall, lumen more irregular, Tunica layers not as distinct. TM has fewer SM, TA is thicker. Veins have valves. Veins have No clear IEM.
Atypical veins venous channels that vary from organ to organ
Venules Small veins, exchange of materials. postcapillary venules - endothelial lining and pericytes. muscular venules have 1-2 layers of SM
Medium Veins Valves since most are found in legs and work against gravity. TI - endothelium. TM - circulary arranged SM. TA- thicker than TM with collagen and Elastic fibers.
Large veins Thin TM and TA is the thickest layer of vessel wall. Sm may be seen in TM, not arranged circularly.
Lymphatic Vessels Removes protein rich fluid from intercelular space to the bloodstream. Form channels that empty into large veins such as thoracic duct and right lympatic trunk. Larger lumen, thinner walls than veins. has Leukocytes, No RBCs.
Lymphatic capillaries Found in loose CT. Tubes of endothelium very permeable. Anchoring filaments, NO SM. 1 layer of endothelium, incomplete BM, can take in large protein rich fluids
Lymph Nodes Immune component of lymphatic vasculature
Atherosclerosis Lumen of coronary arteries narrow due to accumulation of plaques leads to reduced blood flow. TI thickens due to accumulation of cholesterol. Macrophages migrate here, end up dying and form foam cells. TM tends to thin and calcify. Cant constrict/dilate.
Hypertension Sustained High BPs. Diastolic>90, Systolic>140. Thickening of TM due to smooth muscle multiplication, inhibits and causes cells to work harder.
Blood Fluid, special type of CT. Transports nutrients, waste, hormones, immune system cells. Acts as a buffer in coagulation and thermoregulation to help maintain body temp.
Components of Blood Plasma - Liquid ECM(55%). Erythrocytes - 35-45% in women, 39-50% in men. Leukocytes:WBCs with granules
Plasma Liquid ECM(55%) major element is water, acts as solvent for solutes. Albumin - most abundant(maintains osmotic pressure) Globulins-Abs for Iunity Fibrinogen - Cross linked at sites of dmg Electrolytes,AA,maintain homeostasis with pH and osmolarity
Erythrocytes Anucleated, bind o2 and co2. hematocrit is a volume of packed RBCs. Shape allows Hb to be close. Hb is high, binds o2 and co2. functions entirely in the circulatory system. ALWAYS SAME SIZE AND SHAPE.
Leukocytes WBCs with granules. Agranuloctyes. Granulocytes.
Agranulocytes Lymphocytes- immunocompetent cells (B, T, NK). T lymphocytes - cell mediated. B lymphocytes - circulating Ab. NK cells - kill certain cells. Monocytes - Macrophages. APC.
Granulocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
Neutrophils Important for acute inflammation and first responders to tissue damage in CT. Multilobed nucleus. Specific granules are type IV collagenase. Axuropholic granules are lysosomes with myeloperoxidase. 3* granules contain phosphatases.
Eosinophils Prominent for allergic reaction or infections by helminths or chronic inflammation. Bilobed nuclei. Specific granules of crystalloi body Major Basic Protein). Can phagocytize Ag/Ab complexes
Basophils Inflamatory mediators. Binds IgE, initiate inflammatory response. Systemic allergic responses. Lobed nucleus. specific granules with heparin, histamine, leukotriene. degranulation by physical, chemical,etc. Often outside circulatory system.
Thrombocytes Platelets. Anucleate. control bleeding. Cell fragments of megakaryocytes.
Hemapoiesis Formation of RBC. Occurs in Red Bone Marow.
Monophyletic Theory RBC, granulocyte, monocyte, platelet, lymphocyte, all come from hematopoetic stem cell
Erythropoiesis Stimulated by erythropoietin, IL3 and IL4. Low levels indicative of kidney failure. EPO can treat anemia.
Order of Erythropoeisis Proerythroblast > Basophilic erythroblast > polychromatiophilic erythroblast >orthochromatiophic erythroblast >reticulocyte > erythrocyte
Granulopoeisis Myeloblast >promyelocyte > myelocyte > metamyelocyte > band cell(unique to neutrophils) > mature neutrophil,eosinophil, or basophil.
Bone marrow Red - active. in spaces of bones. hemopoietic cords lie between sinusoids. yellow - inactive. red marrow that was replaced by fat. can revert to red if needed.
Aplastic Anemia Too many adipocytes in Bm, symptoms same as anemia.
Acute myelogenous leukemia Too many myeloblasts and too few adipocytes very few sinusoids and all co rds.
Created by: nady