Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

A&P 2 - E3 - P4

A&P 2 - Exam 3 - Part 4 - Respiratory Physiology

Breathing is also known as ________. pulmonary ventilation
_________ moves air into the lungs. inspiration
_________ moves air out of the lungs. expiration
The pulmonary ventilation mechanism must establish two ____________ gradients. gas pressure
The pressure within the alveoli of the lungs must be lower than atmospheric pressure to produce ___________. inspiration
The pressure within the alveoli of the lungs must be higher than atmospheric pressure to produce ___________. expiration
Pressure gradients are established by changes in the size of the thoracic cavity that are produced by ________ and ________ of muscles. contraction, relaxation
________ states that the volume of gas varies inversely with pressure at a constant temperature. Boyle's law
Expansion of the thorax results in ________ intrapleural pressure, leading to a ________ alveolar pressure causing air to move into the lungs. decreased, decreased
Contraction of the diaphragm produces __________, as it contracts, it makes the thoracic cavity _________. inspiration, larger
_______ is the ability of pulmonary tissues to stretch, making inspiration possible. compliance
_________ is a passive process that begins when the inspiratory muscles are relaxed. expiration
During expiration the inspiratory muscles are relaxed, decreasing the size of the _______ and increasing _______ pressure from about -6 mm Hg to a preinspiration level of -4 mm Hg. thorax, intrapleural
During expiration the inspiratory muscles are relaxed, decreasing the size of the thorax and increasing intrapleural pressure from about ______ to a preinspiration level of ______. -6 mm Hg, -4 mm Hg
The pressure between parietal and visceral pleura is always ______ than atmospheric pressure. less
________ is the tendency of pulmonary tissues to return to a smaller size after having been stretched, passively during expiration. elastic recoil
The amount of air moved in and out and remaining (_________) is important in order that a normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide can take place. pulmonary volumes
________ is an instrument used to measure volume of air. spirometer
________ is the amount of air exhaled after normal inspiration. tidal volume (TV)
________ is the largest volume of additional air that can be forcibly exhaled. expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
______ is a normal ERV. 1.2 liters
______ is the amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after normal inspiration. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
______ is a normal IRV. 3.3 liters
______ is the amount of air that cannot be forcibly exhaled. residual volume (RV)
______ is a normal RV. 1.2 liters
A ___________ is the sum of two or more pulmonary volumes. pulmonary capacity
_________ is the sum of IRV + TV + ERV. vital capacity
______ is the amount of air remaining after a lung collapses and most of RV is gone. minimal volume
A person's vital capacity depends on many factors, including the size of the ________ and ________. thoracic cavity, posture
________ is the amount of air left in lungs at the end of a normal expiration. functional residual capacity
_________ is the sum of all four major lung volumes (IRV + ERV + TV + RV) total lung capacity
________ is the total amount of air a lung can hold. total lung capacity
________ is the volume of inspired air that reaches the alveoli. alveolar ventilation
_________ is the air in passageways that do not participate in gas exchange. anatomical dead space
Alveoli must be properly ________ for adequate gas exchange. ventilated
________ pressure of gases is the pressure exerted by any one gas in a mixture of gases or a liquid. partial
_______ is the law which relates to partial pressures. Dalton's law
Dalton's law states that the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases is __________ related to the concentration of that gas in the mixture and to the ___________ of the mixture. directly, total pressure
Arterial blood Po2 and Pco2 __________ alveolar Po2 and Pco2. equal
The exchange of gases in the lungs takes place between alveolar ____ and ______ flowing through lung capillaries. air, blood
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: The oxygen _________ between alveolar air and blood. pressure gradient
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: The total functional _______ of the respiratory membrane. surface area
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: The respiratory ______ volume. minute
One of the four factors that determine the amount of oxygen that diffuses into blood: Alveolar __________ ventilation
The walls of the alveoli and capillaries form only a very _____ barrier for gases to cross. thin
Alveolar and capillary ______ are large. surfaces
Blood is distributed through the capillaries in a thin layer so each red blood cell comes ___________ to alveolar air. close
________ and _______ are transported as solutes and as parts of molecules of certain chemical compounds. oxygen, carbon dioxide
Hemoglobin is made up of four polypeptide chains (two _____ chains, two _____ chains), each with an iron-containing ______ group. alpha, beta, heme
Carbon dioxide can bind to ________ in the chains and oxygen can bind to _______ in the heme groups of hemoglobin. amino acids, iron
Oxygenated blood contains about ______ ml of dissolved O2 per 100 ml of blood. 0.3
Hemoglobin increases the ________ carrying capacity of blood. oxygen
Oxygen travels in two forms: as ________ O2 in plasma and associated with hemoglobin as _________. dissolved, oxyhemoglobin
__________ blood Po2 accelerates hemoglobin association with oxygen. increasing
Oxyhemoglobin carries the _______ of the total oxygen transported by blood. majority
A small amount of CO2 dissolves in plasma and is transported as a solute, what percentage? 10%
Less than one fourth of blood carbon dioxide combines with NH2 (amine) groups of hemoglobin and other proteins to form ______________. carbaminohemoglobin
What percentage of blood carbon dioxide combines with NH2 (amine) groups of hemoglobin and other proteins to form carbaminohemoglobin? 20%
Carbon dioxide association with hemoglobin is accelerated by an _____________ in blood Pco2. increase
More than two thirds of carbon dioxide is carried in plasma as ___________. bicarbonate ions
What percentage of carbon dioxide is carried in plasma as bicarbonate ions? 70%
The exchange of gases in tissues takes place between arterial blood flowing through tissue ______ and ______. capillaries, cells
Oxygen diffuses out of arterial blood because the ______ favors its outward diffusion. oxygen pressure gradient
As dissolved oxygen diffuses out of arterial blood, blood Po2 _______, which ________ oxyhemoglobin dissociation to release more oxygen to plasma for diffusion to cells. decreases, accelerates
Carbon dioxide exchange between tissues and blood takes place in the ______ direction from oxygen exchange. opposite
The _______ states that increased Pco2 _______ the affinity between oxygen and hemoglobin. Bohr effect, decreases
The _______ states that increased carbon dioxide loading is caused by a _________ in Po2. Haldane effect, decrease
________ are the main integrators that control the nerves that affect the inspiratory and expiratory muscles. respiratory control centers
Respiratory control centers are located in the _______. brainstem
The ______ generates the basic rhythm of the respiratory cycle. medullary rhythmicity center
The ______ consists of two interconnected control centers. medullary rhythmicity center
The inspiratory center of the medullary rhythmicity center stimulates _________. inspiration
The expiratory center of the medullary rhythmicity center stimulates ___________. expiration
The basic breathing rhythm can be altered by different inputs to the _______. medullary rhythmicity center
Input from the ________ center in the pons stimulates the inspiratory center to ________ the length and depth of inspiration. apneustic, increase
The apneustic and pneumotaxic centers are located in the ________. pons
The _______ center,in the pons,________ the apneustic center and inspiratory center to prevent _________ of the lungs. pneumotaxic, inhibits, over inflation
________ from the nervous system provide feedback to the medullary rhythmicity center. sensors
Changes in the ______, ______, and ______ of arterial blood influence the medullary rhythmicity area. Po2, Pco2, pH
PCO2 acts on _________ in the medulla - if it increases, the result is _______ breathing; if it decreases, the result is _______ breathing chemoreceptors, faster, slower
A decrease in blood pH stimulates chemoreceptors in the ______ and ______ bodies. carotid, aortic
Arterial blood ________ presumably has little influence if it stays above a certain level. Po2
Arterial blood pressure controls breathing through the _______ mechanism. respiratory pressoreflex
_________ reflexes help control respirations by regulating depth of respirations and the volume of tidal air. Hering-Breuer
The _______ influences breathing by increasing or decreasing the rate and strength of respirations. cerebral cortex
The internal system must continually get new _______ and rid itself of _________. oxygen, carbon dioxide
Blood gases need ______ and the _______ system to be transported between gas exchange tissues of the lungs and various systemic tissues of the body. blood, cardiovascular
Regulation by the _________ system adjusts ventilation to compensate for changes in oxygen or carbon dioxide in the internal environment. nervous
The ________ of the thorax aid the airways in maintaining the flow of fresh air. skeletal muscles
The skeleton houses the ______, and the arrangement of bones facilitates the expansion and recoil of the thorax. lungs
The ________ system prevents pathogens from colonizing the respiratory tract and causing infection. immune
Scarring due to exposure to contaminants is known as ________. alveolar fibrosis
What is an autoimmune disorder that can lead to the build up of fluid in the lungs? rheumatoid lung
What does COPD stand for? chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What is the production of excessive secretions that obstruct airflow? bronchitis
What is the enlargement of air spaces due to the damage of lung connective tissue (gas exchange units are destroyed)? emphysema
What are recurring spasms of the smooth muscles in the walls of the bronchial air passages? asthma
Created by: K1N1V



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards