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HbA1 normal adult hemoglobin - a heterotetramer
HbS sickle cell hemoglobin Glu replaced by Val in the B chain
Chaperones helps refold newly synthesized proteins and misfolded proteins.
Cis-trans-prolpyl isomerases interconvert cis and trans peptide bonds of proline residues.
Protein disulfide isomerases catalyze breakage and formation of disulfide cysteine bonds
heat shock proteins(Hsp) help refold proteins that heat has misfolded them(powered by ATP)
glycosylation carbohydrates
hydroxylation hydroxyl groups
phosphorylation phosphoryl groups
methylation methyl groups
proteolysis cleaving protein chain
specific sequence glycosylated is Asn-X-Thr/Ser
N-linked glycosylation occurs at cotranslationally
O-linked glycosylation occurs later in the Golgi apparatus postranslational
Mannose 6-phosphate determines the lysosomal destination targeting of enzymes to lysosomes
insulin are produced in the pancreatic islet cells
The A-chain of insulin begins with Gly
The B-chain of insulin beings with Phe
Procollagens contain the repeating tripeptide sequence Gly-X-Y several hundred times.
Desmosine cross-link contains three allysines and one lysine
PEST protieins(rich in P,E,S and T) are also rapidly degraded.
Calpains involves perform limited proteolysis
Caspases involves apoptosis(programmed cell death) can activate cysteine aspartyl proteases
proteasome degrades cell proteins that are marked for degradtion by ubiquitination or other means
lysosomes organelle rich in hydrolytic enzymes for degrading and recycling unneeded cell components
Created by: rxfuture949