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APUSH Unit 3

APUSH Unit 3 Test Review

Which party consisted of the wealthier people? Federalists
Which party was strongest in the North? Federalists
Which party believed the common man should be governed by their passions? Federalists
Which party believed in government by and for the "rich, well-born, and able"? Federalists
Which party distrusted the common people? Federalists
Which party favored a strong central government? Federalists
Which party preferred a loose interpretation of the Constitution? Federalists
Which party supported Hamilton's financial program? Federalists
Which party favored Britain in foreign affairs and why? Federalists - feared French mobocracy, similar culture, admired British balanced government, trade would benefit US economy, US to become industrial power like Britain
During what time period was the first party system established? 1792-1815
Which party consisted of the common people and was primarily agrarian? Democratic-Republicans
Which party was strongest in the South and West? Democratic-Republicans
Which party believed in government by capable leaders? Democratic-Republicans
Which party believed the government should work in the interests of the common people? Democratic-Republicans
Which party believed the common men are governed by reason? Democratic-Republicans
Which party favored states rights? Democratic-Republicans
Which party preferred a strict interpretation of the Constitution? Democratic-Republicans
Which party opposed Hamilton's financial program and why? Democratic-Republicans --> unconstitutional
What was the cause of the Civil War? states rights vs. federal rights
Which party favored France in foreign affairs and why? Democratic-Republicans --> were US ally, had money, against the monarchy & for natural rights (1789 Revolution)
What were the 3 major differences? philosophy of man & government, economic policy, foreign policy
Why were the first political parties formed? bitter struggle over financial matters
Who were the leaders of the Federalist Party? John Adams & Alexander Hamilton
The Federalists are considered the forebears of which two parties? Whig Party & present-day Republican Party
Who were the leaders of the Democratic-Republicans? James Madison & Thomas Jefferson
The Democratic-Republicans are considered the forebears of what party? present-day Democratic Party
What were the 4 parts to Hamilton's financial program? payment of debts, excise tax, protective tariff, money management
Describe the how Hamilton's financial program dealt with the debt. new government assumed responsibility for all debts (domestic, foreign, state)
What was the US domestic debt and how did the new financial program deal with it? government bonds & certificates - can be exchanged in new government (full payment)
What was the US foreign debt and how did the new financial program deal with it? debts from Revolutionary War allies (FSN) - loans extended & fully paid
What was the US state debts and how did the new financial deal with it? assumed by federal government
How did the Federalists gain the support of the Democratic-Republicans at the beginning? moved the capitol from NY to the District of Columbia
What would the repayments addressed in Hamilton's financial program accomplish? establish the credit of the US
What was the purpose of the excise tax proposed by Hamilton and what happened as a result of it? raise funds; Whiskey Rebellion
What caused the Whiskey Rebellion and who put it down? excise tax on liquor (became a form of currency b/c it was so common); Washington
What was the purpose of the protective tariff proposed by Hamilton and what did it do? discourage imports & encourage manufacturing in US; increase tariffs on manufactured goods
What did Hamilton propose to deal with money management? Bank of the United States (BUS)
Describe the BUS. private institution with $10,000,000 as a capital stock, private investors (80% --> gave 20% to foreign investors for protection) & government (20%)
What was the role of the BUS? issue paper money with backing of silver & gold (specie), hold government money, tax collections, selling government bonds, provide loans, facilitate transactions
What were the overall objectives of Hamilton's financial program? establish national credit, encourage manufacturing, provide a sound currency
How did Hamilton ensure success in the new government? gave the men of wealth and enterprise an economic stake
Which two parties comprised the 2nd party system? Whigs & Democrats
Which two parties comprised the 3rd party system? Republicans & Democrats
What was significant about the Era of Good Feelings? one-party system (Republicans)
What was the social view of the Federalist Party? pessimistic - people are selfish and need to be ruled by a strong government
What was the social view of the Democratic-Republicans? optimistic - people are good and can self-govern
Politically, whom did the Federalists favor? artificial aristocracy (birth, wealth, status)
Politically, whom did the Democratic-Republicans favor? natural aristocracy (talent & virtue)
What was the economic view of the Federalists? industrial economy, manufacturing, & urban-centered
What was the economic view of the Democratic-Republicans? agrarian economy, farming, & rural-centered
What kind of a capitalistic system did the Federalists desire? modified capitalism - creditors, government aid to business, but not regulation of businesses
What kind of a capitalistic system did the Democratic-Republicans desire? Laissez-faire capitalism - debtors, government neither aiding nor regulating
Who were the leaders of the Democratic-Republicans? Madison & Monroe
Who were the leaders of the Federalists? Washington & Adams
Who were the voters for the Federalist Party? NE merchants, manufacturers, financiers, creditors
Who were the voters for the Democratic-Republicans? Southern agrarians, NE workers, W pioneers, debtors
Why did the Democratic-Republicans object to Hamilton's financial plan regarding the payment of debts? windfall of speculators & transfer of money from farmers/common people to wealthy investors, states don't want to pay other states' debts
Why did the Democratic-Republicans object to Hamilton's financial plan regarding the excise tax? transfer of money to wealthy investors, Whiskey Rebellion - putdown was an overreaction & threatening sign of militarism (fear of standing army)
Why did the Democratic-Republicans object to Hamilton's financial plan regarding the protective tariff? feared retaliation against S staple crops, raise price for foreign manufactured goods, benefits factories in the N
Why did the Democratic-Republicans object to Hamilton's financial plan regarding the BUS? unconstitutional, too much power in the hands of the men not elected/held accountable, create a "monied interest" benefiting the NE and not the S
What is the definition of "Jeffersonian democracy"? achieved through encouragement of the agriculture and the growth of small, owner-worked farms, not industries and cities ===> clashed with American life, so manufacturing is necessary, BUT didn't believe it
What are the 4 characteristics of the Jeffersonian democracy? self-sufficient middle class of yeoman farmers, ideas formed by liberal education & free press, government is minimal & taxes low, capable, well-educated leaders should govern
Who facilitates the election of the president of the United States? Electoral College
Who chooses the members of the Electoral College? state legislatures
Who were a part of Washington's Cabinet? Sec. of State - Jefferson Sec. of Treasury - Hamilton Sec. of War - Knox Attorney Gen. - Randolph VP - Adams
Who was the 1st Chief Justice? John Jay
Who authored the Bill of Rights? James Madison
How does Washington go about raising a revenue? import tariffs
How did Washington address foreign affairs during the time of the French Revolution? US would be impartial toward belligerent powers
What is significant about Citizen Genet? tried to encourage American citizens to bring in British prizes & encouraged land speculators
What was stated in Jay's Treaty? get British out of Western posts (THEY DON'T DO IT), secure reparations of losses of American shippers, compensation for slaves, legalize American commerce with British West Indies
What was stated in Pickney's Treaty? Spanish/US boundary @ 31st parallel, navigation of Mississippi, access to New Orleans, refrain from Indian attacks
What was stated in Washington's Farewell Address? no permanent alliances, no 2nd term, end partisan bickering, origin of foreign policy (isolationism), domestic policy, decried sectionalism
What was the XYZ Affair and what resulted because of it? meeting French delegate; Quasi War
Who were the War Hawks? British who were in support of the South
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? protecting national security from Republican power - restricted immigrants from gaining citizenship & defamatory speech against the government
What was written as a result of the Alien & Sedition Acts? Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
What were the Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions? stated that states had the power to nullify federal laws if they were unconstitutional
Describe the Election of 1800. Jefferson and Burr tied & the final vote was in the hands of the House
What was the case of the "Midnight Judges"? appointment of Federalist judges to keep power in the Supreme Court
Who was the famous Midnight Judge? John Marshall
What was the case of Marbury vs. Madison? Madison never delivered Marbury's commission & Marshall declared his petition unconstitutional - establishes checks & balances/judicial review
What did Jefferson accomplish during his presidency that reversed Federalist policies? repealed excise tax, curtailed army & navy expenditure, repealed Alien & Sedition Acts, replaced Federalists with Democratic-Republicans, repealed Judiciary Act of 1801
What did Jefferson accomplish during his presidency that continued Federalist policies? Hamilton's financial program & policy of isolationism
Who did Jefferson fight without a Congressional Declaration of War? Barbary pirates
Whom did Jefferson try to impeach? Thomas Pickering & Samuel Chase
What were Aaron Burr's conspiracies and scandals? Essex Junto Conspiracy (duel with Hamilton) & separate west from US
Why did Jefferson hesitate to buy the Louisiana Purchase? not in the Constitution
Who was John Randolph and what did he have to do with the Yazoo Claims? led a group of Republican opponents called "Quids"; Fletcher vs. Peck
What was the Embargo Act of 1807? Jefferson's attempt to stay out of war with Britain = no trade with anyone --> economic depression
Which two bills did Madison pass and what did they do? Non-Intercourse Act & Macon's Bill No.2; opened trade to all nations except Britain and France, prohibited trade with anyone who violated America's neutrality
What was the significance of Fletcher vs. Peck? first time a state law was voided on the grounds that it violated the Constitution
What was the significance of Dartmouth vs. Woodward? severely limit the power of state governments to control the corporation
What was the significance of McColloch vs. Maryland? no state has the right to control an agency of the federal government - BUS is constitutional
What was the significance of Gibbons vs. Ogden? only Congress has the right to regulate commerce among states
What were the 3 general characteristics of the Marshall Court rulings? increases federal power over state powers, increase power of Supreme Court, lays groundwork for a broad interpretation of the Constitution
What were the causes of the War of 1812? Britain's seizure of American ships & impressment of its sailors, belief that the British in Canada were arming the Indians and inciting them to attack, ambition to annex Canada & Florida
What was the main cause of the War of 1812? desire of the South for territorial expansion
What were some significant events from the War of 1812? invading Canada unsuccessfully, defeat of British navy on Great Lakes, "Old Ironsides", Fort McHenry, New Orleans
What was the main purpose of the Treaty of Ghent? antebellum (status quo)
What were the results of the War of 1812? growth of nationalism, strengthened isolation, increase in westward migration, encouragement of American industry, disappearance of Federalists, loss of land
What was the significance of the Hartford Convention? last of the Federalist Party, states rights, secession, Federalists wanted money to protect themselves from British occupation
What did the Treaty of Ghent accomplish? NOTHING - stalemate
Who developed the American System? Henry Clay
What is the time period for the Era of Good Feelings? 1816-1824
What did the Adams-Onis Treaty accomplish? acquisition of Florida
What did the Monroe Doctrine state? no more European colonization (isolationism)
What did the American System accomplish? protective tariff, rechartering of the BUS, internal improvements, NOT abolition of slavery
What were the causes of the Panic of 1819? wildcat banks, land speculation
What were the consequences of the Panic of 1819? S & W blame BUS
What was the North like in 1820? industry is on the rise - textiles (Slater & Lowell), most still farmers
What was the South like in 1820? most are yeomen farmers, only 16% own slaves, rise of King Cotton
What was the West like in 1820? commercial farmers, reciprocal relationship with the North
What were the 4 main issues of the sectional conflict? tariff, internal improvements, BUS, expansion of slavery to the West
What did the Missouri Compromise accomplish? set precedent for rest of LA purchase area, Missouri - slave, Maine - free, establishes 36'30" line only for the Louisiana purchase area
Who was the Great Compromiser? Henry Clay
What were the causes of the Panic of 1819? farmers moving W - upped price of land, wildcat banks - print money & inflation, speculators, banks called in loans - farmers lost all land
Who supported the tariff? N & W
Who supported internal improvements? N & W
Who supported the BUS? N
Who supported the expansion of slavery to the W? S
Speaker of the House who eliminated himself as presidential candidate in 1825 Henry Clay
received same number of electoral votes for President as Jefferson in 1800, throwing election into the House Aaron Burr
1st president of the US George Washington
Sec. of Treasury under Jefferson Albert Gallatin
Sec. of State under Monroe, responsible for the Corrupt Bargain John Quincy Adams
Am. general in War of 1812 in the Battle of Tippecanoe who later became president William Harrison
a Virginian Federal justice who was frequently at odds with the presidents John Marshall
1st Sec. of Treasury Alexander Hamilton
tried to form a confederacy of Eastern Indians; thwarted by Harrison's victory at Tippecanoe Tecumseh
Indian that accompanied the Lewis and Clark expedition Sacajawea
Supreme Court justice impeached but not convicted by Jefferson Samuel Chase
president who made peace with France, ending the military alliance with France John Adams
Southern senator at first for a high tariff, later for a low one John Calhoun
led an expedition from the Missouri River to the Columbia River Lewis & Clark
owned slaves but called the Missouri Compromise "like a fire-bell in the night"; bought Louisiana earlier Thomas Jefferson
Dartmouth's counsel in Dartmouth vs. Woodward Daniel Webster
sad, "the Am. continents...are henceforth not the be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." James Monroe
negotiated at treaty with Britain in 1794 that angered the Jeffersonians John Jay
opposed the Adams presidency; challenged Clay to a duel; from Virginia, also opposed the War of 1812 John Randolph
duped into starting the War of 1812 James Madison
NY monopoly given license for ferryboat between NY and NJ; federal government alone can control interstate commerce Gibbons vs. Ogden
MD tried to tax federal bank notes; unconstitutional McCulloch vs. Maryland
Cohens illegally sold lottery tickets; VA court found guilty; est. federal court review of state courts Cohens vs. Virginia
legislature of NH tried to change the college charter; federal government protects contracts against state encroachments Dartmouth vs. Woodward
GA legislature contracted and sold Yazoo to speculators; new legislature revoked; Court upheld original contract Fletcher vs. Peck
Created by: Tiffanyy