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Art History

Exam 2 Ancient S. and C. American Art and Architecture

InformationBackground
San Pedro Cactus Entheogenic Cactus (Trichocereus) prominent in Central Andes Environment.
Camelids: llama, Alpaca, Guanaco, Vicuna Camelids are ancestors. Documented in 1800 BC. All breeds were important in some way for central andeans.
What: Wrapped stone scraper. Where: Guitarrero Cave. When: Lithic period, c. 8,000 BCE A stone with a sharp edge inside a deer hide with tied cord which shows importance of process. Think of wrapping, layering, and mummification.
What: Twined basket fragments. Where: Guitarrero Cave. When: Lithic period, c. 8,000 BCE These twined basket fragments demonstrate that Andes textiles preceded fired ceramics. Also, the skills and technology and process can be seen.
What: Ceramic lump with textile imprint. Where: Valdivia, Ecuador. When: Lithic period, c. 8,000 BCE Two different kinds of weavings can be seen imprinted on this lump of clay, which probably rolled into the fire. Again, we see that textiles are dominant media.
What: Red and black mummies. Where: Chinchorros. When: Lithic period, c. 5,000 BCE Process of creating mummies (which was artistic in a "inbetween medicine and art" way): 1. Flay skin off; 2. Flesh off 3. Re-articulate Bones; 4. Skin on 5. Stuff/Sew (with edible plants, ash, anything they had); 6. Clay mask/wig
What: Chinchorro Mummy. Where: Chinchorros. When: Lithic period, c. 5,000 BCE Mummies = conglomerate of everything in community and environment (culture and nature). Idea of continuity of generations = cyclical thinking. Dual message: life/fertility = breathing mouth, open eyes, essential human face.
What: Sunken Circular Court. Where: City of Caral. When: Cotton Pre-Ceramic period, c. 2,500 BC Had to walk up to place, and down to sunken special place = architecture meant to organize us = had to experience Andean movement (serpentine/wavy - up/down).
What: "Condor with snake in stomach," Cotton Textile. Where: Huaca Prieta. When: Cotton Pre-Ceramic period, c. 2,500 BCE Characteristics of a real condor found in this textile: curved beak with bump; talons with middle one longer; exaggerated eye=great vision. Condor=birds of the mountain. Snake in condor depicts predation and is ex of ukhu. flight=shaman=vison.
What: "Condor with snake in stomach," Cotton Textile, 2 orientations. Where: Huaca Prieta. When: Cotton Pre-Ceramic period, c. 2,500 BCE Artist purposefully chose vertical warps and horizontal wefts, which is much more difficult, in order to indicate motion of bird/beating wings. Example showing that artist used eidetic visualization. Andean equivalent to bat flute/way it was played.
What: Twining crab/snake design. Where: Huaca Prieta. When: Cotton Pre-Ceramic period, c. 2,500 BCE Left: twined big double headed snake w/crabs in between. Ex. of how types of symmetry, in this case rotation, were used with motifs. Also, threads move back and forth and not made end to end shows process; prob due to cyclical thinking (center out).
What: Site of Kotosh. Where: Site of Kotosh. When: Cotton Pre-Ceramic period, c. 2,500 BCE Sunken hearth and niches in the interior indicate temple spaces. Cyclical thinking: bcuz sacred energy still in area=bury bldg w/sand (frm coastline, 200 mi) then build on top. Rt.: detail of underneath niche=crossed hands relief, personofies niche area
What: Painted frieze. Where: Garagay. When: Initial Period, c. 1500 BCE Face in cartouche in web. Human nose w/nostril. pendent pupil eye=animal eye, esp. jag eye when hunting; major motif thru early horizon. Fangs over top=croc. pedipalp on spider/vilca entheogen (since nostrils); spiders consulted to predict future-weather.
What: Site of Cerro Sechin. Where: Site of Cerro Sechin. When: Lithic Period, 1500 BCE. Cerro Sachin shows beginning of conquest and warlike side of this pd. Bot: 3 layers show change over time=power statement of more recent person. monolithic stones=fence; curved edges of fence=typical of initial pd.
What: "Victors, Victims." Stone low-relief. Where: Cerro Sechin. When: Initial Period, 1500 BC. People who took heads=victors=indicated by hawk marking through eye, hat, and club. Victims=mutilated, in this case intestine= hands tied, loose hair on head. not dead eye but staring eye=spiritual death?
What: Site of Chavin de Huantar. Where: Site of Chavin de Huantar. When: Late Initial Period to Early Horizon, 900 - 200 BC. circular sunken courtyard=like caral=chavin taking ideas n moving 2 mountains=connections to coast. U shape embracing mosna river, not on town behind it=not a lot of water in the highlands.
What: Lanzon. Where: Old Temple, Chavin de Huantar. When: Late Initial Period, c. 900 - 200 BC. xtra: earspools=shaman/high status; talon nails. Foot n well @ top=H20 or cornbeer=H2O symbolic bcuz precious in place w/no water. Caapi vine=spine=not native in area. pendent eyes=feline/croc face (no crocs); many faces within=hard to distinguish. lil faces=reflection. snake eyelashes. enginneerpourH2O
What: Site of Chavin de Huantar. Where: Site of Chavin de Huantar. When: Late Initial Period to Early Horizon, 900 - 200 BC. Stairways to roof n disappear into interiors n pop onto roof=ukhu. Interior view shows offering storehouse underneath ground=below ground world=dedicating things to earth.
What: Shaman stone relief; Sunken Circular Courtyard. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon, c. 500-200 BC. crossed fangs (feline). pendant eyes. furrow brow=crocs/felines have. Andean vision serpent=2 headed snake=hair/belt. braid=weaving/cappi vine. Upside down face in wing=transformation conveyed by contour rivalry.
What: Jaguar stone relief; Sunken Circular Courtyard. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon, c. 500-200 BC. Swirl faces=also spots on back. Cat's ear=another face. tongue is tail of another face on rear. jaguar: crossed fangs, talon feet, tail, snake whiskers.
What: Black and White Portal; New Temple. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon, 500-200 BC. White/black portal=2 stones that create lintel=duality=2 columns=2 ppl could fit in doorway. front view:"door to nowhere"=disappear into bldg=entheogens open door to other world.
What: Black and White Portal, roll-out column; New Temple. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon, 500-200 BC. faces @ diff orientations=evoke experience of spinround.female:eagle eye;spine=teeth/mouth=vagina=visual metaphoric sub.male:central tooth/penis;hawk eye.ainy=interlocked snakes.more layers+more combos=more unresolveable=more religious/sacred/fascinating.
What: Black and White Portal, column; New Temple. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon, 500-200 BC. elaborate figures carved on columns=wrap around=textile influenced stone architecture/sculpture. hiding in plain view=never able 2 see whole thing at once=cant/not allowed to walk around, except shamans=important bldg.
What: Raimondi Stela, Stone Relief. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon, 500-200 BC. xtra: twisted vine in bottom corners and top mid. right side up (left) can be read upside down (right)=possibly ceiling or floor= change view/mind/position in order to fully see=eidetic=in order to have viewer experience actively bcuz universe is active. they want u to find other faces as well as main.
What: Tenon Heads, Stone relief. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon 500-200 BC. 41 studded all around temple=manifestation of bldg. spirits outward=bldg. is alive. had to look up to heads as subordinate=again withholding views. animal eyes; crossed fangs; human characteristics; stuff out of nose=indicates use of entheogens in temple.
What: Stirrup-spout vessel. Where: Cupisnique style. When: Early Horizon, c. 500-200 BC. xtra: snake=eyebrows/whiskers/all over/top spout; snakes like to coil&dangle=movement captured. substyle of chavin=blackware. BG and figure intertwined=eye and BG ambiguous again=not interested in terrestrial. feline: flat, snoutlike nose; croc=3fangs/not crossed. circle eyes=animal.
What: Stirrup spout vessel w/jaguar and san pedro cactus. Where: Chavin. When: Early Horizon, c. 500-200 BC. Cacti with unnatural swirl = cacti and effect of cacti in one image. tawny jaguar amongst cacti=unrealistic (jaguars not native to area)=connections to coast. distinct style embodies experience.
What: Stirrup spout vessel w/pendant eyes. Where: Chavin. When: Early Horizon, c. 500-200 BC. Santa Ana substyle=highly burnished/shiny.terracotta BG w/black fig., except eye is see thru/cut out=shaman eye seeing BG. whole image withhold=ukhu. spout is off again. contour rivalry:lines=hair/emanations/tongue/lips of 2 heads (2 sets).
What: "Whisker" nose piece. Where: Chavin. When: Early Horizon, c. 500-200 BCE. Nose Ring=gives body important imagery=movment (would actually move as you move.snakes=whiskers. fruit on ends of middle whiskers.
What: Repousse gold alloy pectoral. Where: Chavin de Huantar. When: Early Horizon, c. 500-200 BCE. created body imagery = spirit within= ukhu. Frontal face = Crocodile fangs coming from top.
What: Karwa painted textiles, resist techniques. Where: Chavin style, south coast. When: Early Horizon, c. 500 BCE. Tie dye=lines drawn on last. small, tiny tie-dye swirls=very precise. all about the process=cloth white, dyed brown, brown outlines and rosy red last. batik=has sharp edge=does not bleed thru. textile literate culture. braid=ex. of lots of visualizing.
What: Karwa painted textiles, circular design. Where: Chavin style, south coast. When: Early Horizon, c. 500 BCE. 2 jaguars facing each other=not parading jaguars. Snake heads off back/rear. tie-dye circles/spots. curly tail=jaguar.
What: Karwa painted textiles, "Cotton Goddess." Where: Chavin style, south coast. When: Early Horizon, c. 500 BCE. xtra: Eye moves all over, constantly searching for imagery. Importance of goddess=fertility=cotton motif=cotton: dyes easily, makes textile production easier, can be grown, don't have to rely on alpacas. female: mouth=vagina, boobs=eye, Chavin only has inversion technique in female representation.
What: Karwa painted textiles, Cotton plant. Where: Chavin style, south coast. When: Early Horizon, c. BCE. Conflation of all things important into one image=textiles important. Simplified cotton motif=shorthand/kenning (visual metaphoric substitution)=shorthand later in period. Jaguar spots. Cotton bulbs=cactus flower bulb=kenning.
What: Mummy bundle. Where: Paracas. When: Early Horizon - Early Intermediate Period, c. 600 BCE - 200 CE. xtra: found 1920, dry paracas area. camelloid fiber; bundles embroidered all the way thru=hours of work. paracas culture=cranial deformation=shape emphasizes length=shamans visions=importance of visual imagery in culture. fetal position, encased, head is seed-like=planted=womb/fertility.
What: Block Color style process. Where: Paracas. When: Early Horizon - Early Intermediate Pd., c. 600 BCE - 200 CE. Block color process: BG embroidered, figure made distinct from BG; color of BG in figure=transparency.Long flowing hair=shaman. TopPic: reminders (unfinished) of process of embroidering: can show several artists, workshops, apprentice/master relationship.
What: Mantle w/ecstatic shaman figures, Block color style embroidery. Where: Paracas. When: Early Horizon - Early Intermediate Pd., c. 600 BCE - 200 CE. dont see textiles w/large shaman; incredible variety.conveys trance state&movement. ecstatic shaman: arched back,ceremonial knife=tuni,flute/baton,ribs=starvation features=trance by fasting/rebirth&death (along w/eyes&mouth of trophy heads/dead things).
What: Pampas cat and Pampas cat/bean figures. Where: Paracas. When: Early Horizon - Early Intermediate pd., c. 600 BCE - 200 CE. Pampas cat=small, nocturnal, stocky, eats small birds/rodents=protects agriculture. habitat: paracas only. beans on border and inside body of cate=relationship of cat and bean=important power symbol.
What: Linear style textile process. Where: Paracas. When: Early Horizon - Early Intermediate Pd., c. 600 BCE - 200 CE. xtra: botpic=feline: ears, bared teeth, squiggly legs. linear style=manner similar to the other realm. basting stitching, based on woven cloth, uses ground cloth, ex. of how mathematical and mechanical method was:only 3 directions of line, H,V,D=not technically deterministic=eidetic thinkers.
What: Linear style textile. Where: Paracas. When: Early Horizon - Early Intermediate Pd., c. 600 BCE - 200 CE. xtra: completely finished. rotated symmetry w/inverted colors; lots of feline creatures rt side up&upside dwn=2D=spirit world. negative in sense of see-thru. animals w/in animals=unity of animals&spirits. delib chose: 4colors,process,etc.=rigid&control=no change beliefs.
What: Liner style tunic (left) and mantle (right). Where: Paracas. When: Early Horizon - Early Intermediate Pd., c. 600 BCE - 200 CE. xtra: mantle= typical colors of red, green, yellow, blue. From far away=big circles=eyes. Dark navy blue=high prestige indigo. Borders don't meet; they are interlocked. Interrupted border vs. complete border to show process. Abstraction=pulls out whats important about iconography&puts focus on lines and colors.
What: Site of Cahuachi. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. Nazca culture getting bigger. no residential areas in the center/city=area for ritual congregation, prob harvest festival. postholes=temporary architecture.
What: Geometric Nasca Lines. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. Low hills to stand on=can get sense of them (not aliens). can see layers=sequentially over 100's of yrs. community effort=sympathetic magic.
What: Nasca Lines (elevated view). Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. conceptually complex/technologically=simple. Palimpsest=layers, non-intentional, can be record of rituals. Like a trail; walk around continuous lines of figures=participatory art. also, literally active edges.
What: Making the Nasca Lines. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., 1 - 700 CE. Pictures depict process: top layer, which is dark due to oxygen exposure of air, is swept away to reveal bottom, light layer which is not exposed to O2. Strings aided in process with accuracy,scale,distance.
What: Hummingbird, Nasca Lines. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. Hummingbirds drink nectar from flowers=ritual w/drink and eat of fruit.
What: Anthropomorphic Nasca Line (aerial view and view w/time lapse photography). Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. Shows how ritual process was also a way to animate/activate images. Images aliveness show through. This could have occured at night.
What: Mantle w/cross-knit looping figures. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 300 BCE - 100 CE. Nasca 2D/3D interplay. Example of how technical determinism does not apply or limit. Spatial embroidery. Flowers outlined in black. Detail of borders: trees and figures and flowers out in 3D form.
What: Pampas cat painted textile. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. Nasca also did painting. Ground cloth has texture. Standing fig.s w/white tunics, striped legs and arms&mask w/cat ears/whiskers=pampas cat=holding beans/corn and other ritobj. trance eyes=both agriculturists=harvests/shamans=fertility.
What: Textile and Vessel w/Hummingbird Motifs. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. Painted textile=BG is kind of messy to rep. world of fluttering birds. Repeat 100s of hummingbirds=magical bcuz of ROM in flight. aggressive over territory=fertility&ferocious. mouth=needle=weaving=beautiful colors.
What: Naturalistic vessel (corn stalk). Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. Segments and corn representational, but with flair/unrealistic=zig zag and small bulb on top. Including roots=always in Andean art.
What: Anthropomorphic ceramic drum w/objects pictured (gold nose piece and Spondylus shell necklace). Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. xtra: drum when inverted; drum used to put into trance. Nasca ceramics depict other art pieces: white whisker beard=gold nose piece; necklace w/2holes=spondylus shell neck (w/fantastic grey color), forehead element. trophy heads w/pendant pupil eyes of chavin.
What: Ceramic Vessel w/abstract figure and Rollout Designs. Where: Nasca. When: Early Intermediate Pd., c. 1 - 700 CE. xtra: Rt: elements have life=emanations sprout into other dimension=like 3D embroidery. more proliferation=more fertility. More 2D ceramics in later period (mid-late piece). rest of person is wrapped around=cant see at once. navel=eye=synesthesia, body sees thru touch. feline ear, forehead/mouth mask, spshell neck, spools/beads.
Created by: kgracia44
 

 



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