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Genetics Exam II

HU: Frankel

QuestionAnswer (1)Answer (2)Answer (3)
? -> mRNA -> ? DNA -> mRNA -> polypeptide central dogma N/A
What happens after mRNAs are modified? they are incapable of pairing w/ anything N/A N/A
capping enzyme starts a nucleotide triphospate of guanine (GTP) after methylization it is 7methyl guanosine (7mG) N/A
methyl transferases/"transcripts" take methyl groups from molecules that donate them takes up S-adenosyl methionine N/A
clipping sequence appears in termination of all sequences recognized by the clipping enzyme ("tail) N/A N/A
Where do caps get methylated? the 7th point of guanine N/A N/A
What happens when both the cap and the tail are on the mRNA? degradation is prevented N/A N/A
What base sequence make up the tail? AAUAAA N/A N/A
Before a capping enzyme is added, what is attached to the 5' side of the mRNA? triphosphate (ppp) N/A N/A
What is added after the mRNA is "clipped?" Poly (A) polymerase N/A N/A
primary transcript precursor "unprocessed" mRNA turn into mature mRNA once processed N/A
In what part of the cell does the primary transcript become processed? in the nucleus it travels to the cytoplasm once matured N/A
coupling ribosomes attach and move down the mRNA (w/ amino acids) during translation when mRNA peels off it is ready for translation N/A
post-transcription modification where primary mRNA is convert to mature mRNA after synthesization what a eukaryotes mRNA must complete after synthesization N/A
polyadenylation when a Poly (A) tail is added to the 3' end of mRNA a sequences containing multiple adenosine monophosphates N/A
What does Poly (A) polymerase do to the mRNA? adds the Poly (A) tail N/A N/A
intervening sequences sequences that come between something N/A N/A
exons where the sequence makes genetic sense will remain in the final product of the mRNA N/A
introns important to be in the gene, but are not needed in the messenger can buffer against random mutations will be cut out of final product of the mRNA
heterogeneous nuclear/(hmRNA) primary transcript mRNA coming off of DNA N/A N/A
? -> mRNA hmRNA N/A N/A
DNA-RNA hyridization 1)when you add heat to DNA causing the helix to separate into two strands 2)one strand of the helix attaches to an RNA transcript and is cooled to form a duplex/hybrid N/A N/A
What does a duplex/hybrid identify? intron and gene location N/A N/A
loops regions of DNA that has nothing to pair w/, therefore forms a "loop" contains intron region at its peak regions that are not complimentary
small nuclear smRNA have the responsibility of cutting out introns only found in eukaryotes (the nucleus) N/A
small nuclear ribonucleo proteins/(snRNPs)"snurps" contain a large amount of uracil N/A N/A
What are the three significant smRNAs containing snRNP? 1)U1snRNA 2)U2snRNA 3)U5snRNA N/A N/A
U1snRNA has near perfect complimentation to the 5' splice site facilitates a cut at the 5' attaches to the U2 binding side so free ends are not lost
spliceosome formed from the excision of an intron keeps exon ends "in hand" to join them together N/A
U2snRNA allows U1smRNA to attach to it so excisioned ends are not free N/A N/A
lariet model of intron excision has lariet shape due to the bonding of the U1 excisioned 5' end and the U2 site N/A N/A
U5smRNA creates 3' splice site facilitates a cut at the 3' end has the responsibility of recognizing the 3' site
What happens when the introns are removed? the exons are joined the mRNA is ready for translation N/A
B-thalessemia a blood disorder due to splicing errors "low hemoglobin levels" N/A
Where are the splice sites located? at the 3' of every exon at the 5' of every intron N/A
cryptic splice sites when much mutation causes splice mechanism no to see the correct splice site which causes it to make an incorrect cut N/A N/A
What does tRNA do? brings amino acids to the site of protein synthesis sequences amino acids in the polypeptide N/A
How many types of tRNAs are there and what are their lengths? approximately 50 80-90 nucleotides long N/A
tRNA has what kind of sequence? has inverted repeat sequences N/A N/A
What is formed when strands pair? "stems" N/A N/A
methylation are structural changes to the tRNA establishes the "loop" N/A
Where do amino acids get attached to the tRNA and what is this called? 3' end at ACC amino acid attachment site N/A
How many naturally occuring amino acids exist? 20 N/A N/A
How many stems and loops does a tRNA form? 4 "stems," 3 "loops" N/A N/A
What happens when amino acids attach to the tRNA? the tRNA becomes charged N/A N/A
codons linear sequence of three nucleotides that code for a given amino acid will be recognized by an anticodon in the transcript code for various amino acids
anticodons recognizes codons and attaches to them N/A N/A
D-loop first loop is the enzyme recognition site N/A
anticodon loop second loop anticodon recognition site where anticodons attach to the codons on mRNA
T-loop third loop ribosomal attachment site N/A
eukaryotic translation occurs in cytoplasm, NOT nucleus has "special separation" after being transcribed N/A
steps of mRNA processing 1)addition of a "cap" to the 5' end 2)addition of a "tail" to the 3' end 3)removal of nucleotides (excision) N/A N/A
Where is GTP added to the mRNA? backwards to the 5' (3' side) N/A N/A
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