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Esperanto Suffixes

Esperanto Suffixes - Flashcards on the international language of Esperanto

SuffixEnglishExamples
-ant present active participle fali = to fall, falanta = falling
-int past active participle fali = to fall, falinta = fallen
-ont future active participle fali = to fall, falonta = going to fall
-at present passive participle mangxi = to eat, mangxata = being eaten
-it past passive participle mangxi = to eat, mangxita = (have been) eaten
-ot future passive participle mangxi = to eat, mangxota = going to be eaten
-ate while being mangxi = to eat, mangxate = while being eaten
-ati to be in a state of being mangxi = to eat, mangxati = to be in a state of being eaten
-ato a person who is being mangxi = to eat, mangxato = a person who is being eaten
-ad shows an action or process defined by the root (continual / ongoing) marteli = to hammer, martelado = hammering; boji = to bark (like a dog), bojado = barking
-ajx shows a concrete, tangible manifestation of the root ricxa = rich, ricxajxoj = riches; havi = to have, havajxoj = possessions
-ec shows a quality of characteristic definded by the root ricxa = rich, ricxeco = richness; blua = blue, blueco = blueness (of something)
-ul shows a person characterized by the root ricxa = rich, ricxulo = a rich person; bona = good, bonulo = a good person
-an member, adherent, participant of the root komitato = comittee, komitatano = comittee member; Budho = the Buddha, budhano = a Buddhist
-ar a collection of things defined by the root arbo = tree, arbaro = forest; sxafo = sheep (singular), sxafaro = a flock of sheep
-ej a place intended for the thing(s) or action(s) defined by the root kuiri = to cook, kuirejo = a kitchen; pregxi = to pray, pregxejo = a church
-er the smallest part or element of a collective defined by the root sablo = sand, sablero = a gain of sand; negxo = snow, negxo = a snowflake
-estr boss of whatever is defined by the root komitato = committee, komitatestro = chairman of the committee; urbo = town, urbestro = mayor
-id the offspring of the creature defined in the root kato = cat, katido = a kitten; arbo = tree, arbido = a sapling
-il a tool for doing whatever is defined by the root komputi = to compute, komputilo = a computer; trancxi = to cut, trancxilo = a knife
-in the specifically female version of whatever is defined by the root filo = son, filino = daughter; viro = man, virino = woman
-ing a holder for the object defined by the root knadelo = candle, kandelingo = candle-holder; cigaro = cigar, cigatingo = cigar-holder
-ism a doctrine, movment, system, etc., for the idea defined by the root Budho = Buddha, budhismo = Buddhism; Markso = Karl Marx, markismo = Marksism
-ist an individual proffessionally or avocationally occupied with the idea or activity defined by the root jxurnalo = newspaper, jxurnalisto = newspaperman / reporter; lingvo = language, lingvisto = a linguist
-uj a container for objects described by the root salo = salt, salujo = salt-shaker; mono = money, monujo = purse
-i To form the name of: 1.counry from a capitol or river of the same name 2. country from it's inhabitants 3. science, etc., from it's practioner 4. flower from it's inventor, etc. Algxero and Algxerio; astronomo and astronomio; fuksio = fuchsia and fukso = Fuchs
-ik form the name of a science, etc. from its practitioner poeto = poet, poetiko = poetics; lingvo = language, lingviko = linguistics
-it describe an inflamation of the organ described by the root laringo = larynx, laringito = laryngitis; hepato = liver, heratito = hepatitis
-ebl having whatever id described by the root done to it legi = to read, legeble = readable, legible; fari = to do, farebla = doable
-em having an inclination or tendency towards whatever is described by the root ami = to love, amema = loving; labori = to work, laborema = industrious
-end must have whatever described by the root done to it fari = to do, farenda = must be done; sendi = to send, sendenda = must be sent
-ind worth having whatever is described by the root done to it ami = to love, aminda = loveable; fari = to do, farinda = worth doing
-al used to create the adjective form of a noun formed directly from an adjective varma = hot, varmo = heat, varmala = thermal
-esk similar to, or in the manner of, whatever is described by the root japano = Japanese, japaneska = Japanesque; statuo = statue, statueska = statuesque
-iv capable of doing whatever is described by the root pagi = to pay, pagiva = solvent; fari = to do, fariva = able to do
-oid with the form of whatever is described by the root homo = human being, homoida = humanoid; urso = bear, ursoida = ursoid
-oz used with noun roots to show the presence of a large quantity poro = pore, poroza = porous; sablo = sand, sabloza = full of sand
-ig to cause something to be in the state described by the root rugxa = red, rugxigi = to (cause to) turn red; fari = to do, farigi = to have (something) done
-igx to become in the state described by the root rugxa = red, rugxigxi = to become red; fari = to do (something), farigxi = to become (done)
-iz to apply something ( physically or metaphorically) to an object plumo = feather, plumizi = to fletch; stano = tin, stanizi = to tin (as in soldering)
-art the art of whatever is described by the root kuiri = to cook, kuirarto = cuisine; navigi = to navigate, navigarto = navigation (the art of)
-am loving whatever is described by the root gasto = guest, gastama = hospitable; mono = money, monama = avaricious
-hav possessing what is described by the root flugilo = wing, flugilhava = winged; oro = gold, orhava = possessing gold
-plen full of what is described by the root oro = gold, orplena = full of gold; humila = humble, humilplena = full of humility
-pov capable of what is described by the root esprimi = to express, esprimpova = expressive; pagi = to pay, pagipova = solvent
-ricx rich with what is described by the root karbo = coal, karbicxa = rich in coal; grasa = fat, grasicxa = fatty
-sxajn seeming to be whatever is described by the root vera = true, versxajne = apparently; blua = blue, blusxajna = blue-seeming
-aspekt having the appearance of whatever is described by the root regxo = king, kegxaspekta = kingly; hundo = dog, hundaspekta = looking like a dog
-simil being sililar to what is described by the root floro = flower, florsimila = like a flower; sxtono = stone, sxtonsimila = like a stone
-manier with the manner of whatever is described by the root besto = animal, bestmaniera = with the manner of an animal; hundo = dog, hundmaniera = dog-like
-acx gives the word a shading of contempt, detesation cxvalo = horse, cxevalacxo = nag; domo = house, domacxo = hovel
-eg augments or strengthens the idea shown in the root domo = house, domego = mansion; varma = hot, varmega = boiling hot
-et diminishes the idea shown in the root domo = house, dometo = cottage; varma = hot, varmeta = warm
-um no definite meaning vento = wind, ventumi = to ventilate; aminda = lovable, amindumi = to pitch woo
-if to turn something into the root varma = hot, varmifi = to thermalize
-cxj takes a man's name and turns it into an intimate form frato = brother, fracxjo = little brother; Johano = John, Jocxjo = Jack
-nj takes a woman's name and turns it into an intimate form frato = brother, franjo = little sister; Johana = Joan, Jonjo = Joanie
Created by: yellowclay
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