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Biochem Review

Survey of Biochemistry Midterm Review

Macromolecules are made up of: Subunits
Only 1 of these starches is created by animals: Glycogen
What form of glucose is ultimately used in glycolysis? ß-D-glucose
The difference between an alpha and a beta conformation is called: Chirality
True or False: Both glucose and fructose FLIP between a ring and a chain structure in (a water) solution. True
An oligosaccharide is defined as: Composed of 3-10 subunits of sugar monomers
The link between two sugar monomers is called a: glycosidic bond
True or False: Polysaccharides can have only ONE type of monomer in the molecule. False
True or False: Only prokaryotes use glycolysis for breaking down sugar. False
Glycolysis prepares sugars for: Entry into the Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle (and Oxidative Phosphorylation)
Celluar respiration has two types. What are they? Anaerobic and aerobic
True or False: Catabolized lipids and proteins can be used to generate ATP. True
Glycolysis produces: Pyruvic acid, NADH and ATP
True or False: Carbohydrates are the most common fuel for glycolysis, Krebs, oxidative phosphorylation. True!
Which organism has its genetic material free floating and tethered within the cytoplasm? Bacteria (and what else?)
Which is NOT true of eukaryotes? They are always unicellular
Which is NOT true of cell membranes? They are primary composed of proteins. (lipids is the correct answer)
Which one of the following is NOT embedded in the plasma membrane? Mitochondrion (it's not even a macromolecule: it's an organelle)
True or False: Active transport uses ATP to move molecules across cell membranes. True
The primary function of the mitochondrion as an organelle is: To manufacture ATP
The nucleus of the cell does NOT contain: Golgi complex
The endoplasmic reticulum are/is: A complex of lipid bilayer membranes
What is NOT true about ribosomes? They only float freely in the cytoplasm (truth is they are attached to "lots and lots" of structures)
Exocytosis means that: Products are deposited outside the cell (by fusing with the plasmalemma)
The importance of membranes is highlighted by their: Separate their environment from their contents
In a lipid bilayer membrane, the lipid portions are lined up: With the polar heads facing OUT into the environment
Which type of chromatin is more available for constant use in transcribing genetic code? Euchromatin
Which is NOT a function of the ER? To transcribe genetic code (it does NOT)
True or False: Mitochondria have their own DNA loops to instantly produce genetic information. True
Thiol is a type of alcohol. What is the characteristic element of a thiol? Sulphur
The carbonyl group (C double bonded to O) imparts a _____ character to the molecule. Polar
Which is FALSE regarding a carboxylic acid group? It forms strong acids (truth is is forms WEAK acids, "that's its whole purpose")
On interpreting the skeleton diagram of a molecule, which elements are not typically shown? Carbon and Hydrogen
Amines have a primary, secondary and tertiary presentation. Primary is: (Only one of the R groups replaced?)
The special character trait of a porphyrin group is: The chelation of metal ions
The definition of a sugar monomer is: A ring composed of 4-5 carbons and 1 oxygen
An amino acid is a combination of: An amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group
Amino acids in proteins are joined by a: Peptide bond (Amide bond would also be correct)
What is NOT true about dehydration synthesis? Water is incorporated into the new molecule.
A nucleotide is composed of: Ribose or deoxyribose sugars, purines or pyrimidines and phosphate
What kind of bonds hold together the two strands of DNA? Hydrogen bonds
Name the four classes of biological molecules: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic acids/Nucleotides/Nitrogen
Which statement does NOT describe the concept of entropy? Molecules tend to concentrate toward one another (Entropy is the opposite :)
Which answer is NOT true about concentration gradients? [Didn't read the answer-- but it's same idea as question above.]
Brownian motion describes: The random movement of atoms and molecules
True or False: A catalyst speeds up reaction rates. True
True or False: Amino acids used to make proteins are all D- form. False (they are all L- form!!)
Radioactive decay produces many types of particles. Which one is NOT a particle? Ion
True or False: Biological systems take advantage of chemical and electrical properties of atoms. True
True or False: Carbon always bonds covalently and always has its 4 bonds filled. True
C, N, O, H are the four most common elements in organic molecules. What are the next two? S & P
If a molecule or an area of a molecule, as in a fat, is hydrophobic, it is More non-polar (molecule or area)
Enantiomers are mirror image twin crystals. Which statement is FALSE about them? Enzymes are incapable of converting one form into the other.
Which aliphatic molecule has double bonds between carbons? Alkenes (Remember: no dbl bonds=kane, >1 dbl bond=kene, >1 triple bond=kyne)
Which type of molecule is saturated? Alkanes (b/c no double bonds)
Which quality makes the carbon ring in benzene characteristic as an aromatic? The double bonds between the 6 carbons (that shift between pairs)
An atom consists of: A nucleus of protons and neutrons and orbiting electrons
An element is defined as: The count of PROTONS in the nucleus
True or False: The electron cloud or shell can gain or lose electrons. True
A valence state of an atom can be described as: The characteristic number of electrons an element tends to gain or lose
True or False: Electroneutrality is a state that atoms and molecules would like to avoid. False
True or False: Covalent bonds share electrons between two or more atoms' electron clouds. True
An ionic bond consists of: Atoms with a positive valence attracted to atoms with an equal negative valence
True or False: Non-polar molecules have a symmetrical electrical charge across urface of the molecule. True
The capacity of a molecule to dissolve in a liquid is called: Solubility (he says he might accept ionization potential)
Which statement is FALSE about water? It is formed with ionic bonds
A cation is: Positively charged
pH stands for: Percent hydrogen (it actually stands for "power of hydrogen," but WTH)
When there is an excess of H+ ions in solution, the solution is: Acidic
When an ion characterizes a basic solution with a pH greater than 7, which ion? OH-
The chemical properties of an atom are determined by: The electron count orbiting the nucleus
True or False: Lipids always have a strong hydrophobic portion to the molecule. True
There are 3 types of lipid structures. What are they? Fatty acids, glycerols, and sterols
In BIOLOGICAL sytems, FOUR types of lipids are found. What are they? Fatty acids, glycerides, non-glycerides, and complex lipids
Give 3 examples of complex lipids in biological systems. Liposomes, micelles, lipoproteins
Give an example of a fatty acid in biological systems. Phospholipids
Give an example of non-glyceride lipids in biological systems. Waxes and sphingolipids
True or False: Lipids are the PRIMARY STRUCTURAL COMPONENT of membranes. True (as phospholipid fatty acids)
True or False: Lipids store energy as hydrocarbons to provide energy for making ATP True
True or False: Certain types of lipids act as messengers in the bloodstream as hormones and prostaglandins True
True or False: Some lipids are actually important vitamins (e.g., A, D, E, K.) True
True or False: Dietary lipids are necessary to absorb so-called 'fat soluble' vitamins (such as A, E, D, K), and that it is recommended that 20% of the human diet be comprised of fats. True
True or False: The most common role of fatty acids in cells and tissues are as aliphatic chains in the structure of cell (bilayer) membranes. True
True or False: Fatty acids have mostly non-polar structures, but their acid tails lend them some solubility in water. Hence, they can be used to EMULSIFY non-polar and polar substances. True
True or False: Soap is an example of a salt of a fatty acid. True
A fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain with a _______ group on one end and a ___________ group on the other. methyl/carboxyl
Which of the "end chains" of a fatty acid is "easily replaced or added to" and thus gives the molecule its readily bonding quality? The carboxyl group
Give an example of 3 common fatty acids (in olive oil). Oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid
What causes a 'crook' or bend in the structure of a fatty acid? Or, asked another way, what is this crook or bend evidence of? A double bond
The bonding of a fatty acid to a phosphate group creates what? A phospholipid
True or False: Phospha-tidyl-choline is a major component of bilayer membranes. True
True or False: Phospha-tidyl-choline is a diglyceride (i.e., made of two fatty acid chains. True
True or False: Phospha-tidyl-choline is a common EMULSIFIER in the body. True
True or False: Lecithin is common emulsifier sometimes taken as a dietary supplement. True
True or False: Emulsifiers are able to get non-polar and polar substances to go into solution in water. True
True or False: Detergents are examples of emulsifiers True
A GLYCOLIPID consists of one or more fatty acid chains bonded to what? A sugar or chain of sugars
The basic molecular backbone used to make hormones like corticosteroids and testosterone/estrogen is what: sterol
True or False: Cholesterol is a sterol structure True
True or False: Cholesterol is a sterol structure but technically is also an alcohol True
True or False: Cholesterol in biological systems is VERY COMMON and is the precursor molecule for sterol-based compounds. True
True or False: The sterol backbone is always composed of three 6-carbon rings with one 5-carbon ring. True
A fatty acid bound to a special N-containing alcohol (amine) called a sphingosine is called: Sphingolipid
True or False: Glycerides are names by the number of fatty acid chains attached to their glycerol backbones. True
True or False: Since glycerol can only attach up to 3 chains, there are only 3 types of triglycerides: monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides True
The two important diglycerides found in cells' lipid bilayers are PHOSPHA-TIDLY-CHOLINE and what? PHOSPHA-TIDYL-ETHANOLAMINE
True or False: Triglycerides are the most common way animals store fat in adipose tissue. True
True or False: A triglyceride is defined as "three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol (glyceride) backbone." True
A lipid-protein MICELLE that transports triglycerides and cholesterol through the body (via the bloodstream) is called: a chylomicron
True or False: A chylomicron is basically a "protein embedded micelle." True
True or False: Protein floating inside a specialized micelle is called a chylomicron True
The 2 most common lipid messengers in the human body (or animals) are: Prostaglandins and sterols (e.g., basis for many hormones)
The basic molecule from which prostaglandins are made is called: arachidonic acid
True or False: Arachidonic acid, the molecule from which prostaglandins are constructed, is synthesized from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that humans must get from their diet. True
True or False: Arachidonic acid is converted to many types of prostaglandins which are important in blood clotting, inflammatory responses, protecting the stomach lining, menstrual cramping, and bronchodilation. True
True or False: Sterol molecules, in addition to providing the backbone for production of many hormones, are also necessary to produce BILE SALTS. True
Important gonadal hormones are testosterone, estrogen, progesterone and ??? estradiol
True or False: ADRENAL hormones such as glucocorticoids and corticosteroids regulate important body processes such as immune and inflammatory responses. True
True or False: Prednisone is an example of a synthetic sterol hormone used to turn off the inflammatory response. True
The liver metabolite of ethyl alcohol responsible for hangovers is called: acet-aldehyde (acet means there are 2 carbons-- but so does eth. Prop=3, But-4)
Specialized cells that line the villi of the small intestine and deposit micelles of emulsified lipids into the lymph lacteal are called: parenchyma cells
Carbohydrates are digested by enzymes in the saliva "and small intestine," whereas lipids pass THROUGH the stomach into the _______ and _________ where bile salts break up (emulsify) lipid globules into micelles. duodenum, jejunum
The gall bladder is signaled to release bile only when a large enough quantity of fat has been detected in the __________. duodenum
Bile and _________ act as emulsifiers, breaking down lipid globules into enclosed fat droplets called _______. lecithin/micelles
Bile acids are secreted by the _____, lipases from the ______, lecithin from the _______. gallbladder, pancrease,liver
Micelles are absorbed by the endothelial cells of the small intestine by a process known as: endocytosis
In the parenchymal cells on the villa surfaces of the small intestine, micells are "proteinated" (special proteins embedded in the droplet bilayer) and become __________. chylomicrons
True or False: Chylomicrons are proteinated micelles that are produced in the Golgi complex and released into the lacteals of the lymph system. True
True or False: Micells are absorbed into the endothelia cells of the SI by ENDOCYTOSIS, but chylomicrons are released into the lacteals of the lymph system by EXOCYTOSIS. True
True or False: Proteinated chylomicrons are released from the Golgi complex and packed into vacuoles that are then transpored to lymph lacteal via exocytosis. True
True or False: A lymph lacteal is basically a capillary-- but of the lymph system instead of the venous (blood) system. True
The lymphatic system empties into the bloodstream at the ___________. superior vena cava (just on the right of the heart)
True or False: Lipases in the chylomicrons begin CATALYSIS of fats (and the resulting glycerols and fatty acids) only once they have been released into the bloodstream (at superior vena cava). True
A major lipid energy generation pathway (which prepares fatty acids for entry into Krebs Cycle) is called: beta oxidation
The process of turning fatty acids into Acetyl Coenzyme A (ACA) is a ___________ process. degradative
True or False: Beta oxidation takes place in the MATRIX of the mitochrondrion. True
In beta oxidation, an 18 carbon fatty acid ends up as a 16 carbon fatty acid because 2 of those carbons have become the ______ group for acetyl coenzyme A. acetyl
Since beta oxidation removes 2 carbons from fatty acid chain to make acetyl coenzyme A (from coenzyme A), it is clear that for every 2-carbon bit degraded from a fatty acid ___ ACA is produced. 1
In the process of beta oxidation, 1 ACA is produced for every 2-carbon bit degraded. How much ATP is consumed? 1 ATP consumed for each 2-carbon bit degraded
True or False: In addition to one ACA, one FADH2 and one NADH are produced for every 2-carbon unit degraded during beta oxidation. True?
Created by: mrbarr
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