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History Mid Term

Original Dilemma of Governemnt Freedom Vs Order - How much freedom should a citizen expect to surrender in exchange for safety?
3 Major Purposes of Government Maintaining Order Provide Public Goods Promote Equality (20th century)
Modern Dilemma of Gov Freedom Vs Equality - What is the cost of social/political equality Civil rights Legislation/Affirmative action Government programs (Medicaid/Medicare) Americans with disabilities
Constitutional foundations Distance and costs led to Britain granting significant self-rule to American Colonies Colonists knew Independence and freedom of religion because of lifestyles
Social contract theory Rulers rule by the consent of the ruled
Constitutional principles Republicanism- People elect representatives for their interests Federalism - States hold some sovereignty within national government Separation of Powers - Each branch of Gov has specific powers Checks and Balances- Each branch can limit some powers
New Jersey Plan Unicameral - legislature based on equal representation Multi-person executive with no veto power supreme court with limited power Legislative acts would be supreme law of the land Neither plan was accepted on it's own
Articles of Confederation System of government in America during Revolutionary War. (Very weak) Three major weaknesses: No power to levy taxes,No leadership position (President),No control over inter- or intra-state commerce (money
States Right Federalism there is a firm demarcation, even tension, between the national and state governments (layer cake metaphor) The national government holds only powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution (Enumerated Powers) 10th Amendment guarantees State powers
Dual Federalism States have sovereignty within their borders
Nationalist Federalism Theory that contends that the federal system is like a marble cake where state and national powers overlap. Supports the Supremacy Clause
Recall Voters could remove elected officials before end of term
Initiative A law proposed by the public through petition process
Referendum Direct popular vote on proposed laws or constitutional amendments
Petition a formal request to parliament for action, such as a need to change an existing law or to pass a new law
Political Parties Organizations that sponsor candidates for state and national offices
Function of Political Parties Nominating Candidates Structuring voter choice Proposing Government Programs- Develop platforms on how they will govern Coordinating Government Actions- 2 party system forces cooperation to make policy
The two-Party System Unique among democratic countries Result of electoral system and political socialization-Electoral College forces voters to choose between 2 candidates because majority choice receives electoral vote
Impact from two-party Third parties have had significant impact during selected elections mostly due to social movements but have not had electoral success and serve to divide national parties
Electoral College The Constitution provides that the President shall be chosen by electors chosen by the states A state gets a number of electors equal to their representation in Congress (Needs 270 to win)
Problems with Electoral College Magnifies perceived support Candidate can win with a minority of popular vote Limits 3rd party influence
Iron Triangle alliances based on common interests among government agencies, business interests, and Congress
Political Party Ideologies Conservatives - limited government generally believe the states should be more independent from national control States have a better grasp on what they need to do to deal with their problems National government should mind it’s own business
Liberals worry that states would take advantage of limited national oversight to push local agendas over national programs
Campaign policies to support their candidates through framing national issues, highlighting past performance, and personal characteristics Also vital in get out the vote movements and deciding where to spend money
Constitutional Principles Republicanism People elect representatives to represent their interests in government Federalism States hold some sovereignty within national government Separation of Powers Each branch of government has specific powers Checks and Balances
Article 5 Amendment process - Establishes procedures to change the Constitution
Article 6 Supremacy clause
Article 7 Ratification - Outlines procedure for accepting the Constitution
Checks and Balances Each branch can limit some powers of the other two
bill of rights All changes must occur through the process outlined in Article 5 10 Amendments were added to the Constitution to ensure individual rights and limit the power of the Government.
Created by: leahmarie_112
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