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_______ glands are ductless that secrete________ into the _______ endocrine, hormone, blood
________ secrete into ducts exocrine
nervous system communicates ____ and ___ while endocrine communicated solely __________ electrical, chemical, chemical
nervous system responds ________ to stimulus while endocrine responds ________ quickly, slowly
nervous system _____ stops when stimulus ceases while endocrine _______ quickly, continues for a longer time
whats the master control center of endocrine system There is none
the pituitary gland is divided into _____ and _______ adenohypophysis (anterior) and neurohypophysis (posterior)
whats the connection between the anterior pit with the hypothalamus? and is there nervous connection Hypopheseal portal system, no nervous connection
_________ connects the posterior pit to the hypothalamus hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
Hypothalmic hormones are releasing, inhibiting, oxytocin and ADH
Ant pituitary hormone secretes FLAT PIG FSH,LH,ACTH,TH,Prolactin,Growth Hormone
FLAT are _______ or _______ hormones trophic/indirect- stimulate other endoc glands
PG are ______ hormones that stimulate target organs direct
______ stimulate development of egg and follicle + sperm production FSH
______ stimulate ovulation, corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone + secrete testosterone LH
_____ stimulate secretion of thyroid hormone TSH
________ stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids and sex steroids not aldosterone ACTH
glucocorticoids promotes _______ and _____ metabolism gluconeogenesis, protein
________ stimulates milk synthesis Prolactin
_______ promotes mitosis, tissue growth, peaks during deep sleep, promotes protein synthesis, lipid + increase blood gluc Growth hormone
Post Pit hormones Oxytocin and ADH
________ causes water retention,reduce urine volume, when blood vol decreases ADH/vasopressin
___ induce labor contractions, milk let down Oxytocin
__________ releases serotonin in the day and melatonin at nights. circadian rhythm Pineal Gland
_________ stores mature T-lymphocytes Thymus gland
Thyroid release ______ that are iodine activated and increase metabolism and calorigenic effect. Thyroxine
Thyroid release _____ decreases blood calcium and increases osteoblast Calcitonin
___________ stimulates increases blood calcium stimulates osteoclast. Parathyroid hormone
_______ causes active reabsorption Na and passive reabsorption of H2O Mineralcorticoid/aldosterone
______ causes adrenal cortex secrete small amts of androgen sex hormone
___________ release amino acid compds called catecholamines associated with the sympathetic nervous system adrenal medulla
adrenal medulla releases epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline
adrenaline-_______ increases heart rate, pulmonary airflow, circulation to muscles decrease digestion and urine
________ stimulates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone ___when blood volume falls angiotesin2
______ stimulates glands in the stomach to release HCl gastrin
the small intestine secretes ____ when acidic food enters secretin
________ released from intestine to stimulate release of bile and pancreatic juices cholecystokinin
____ stimulates protein and fat metabolism, gluconeogeneis, in islets of langerhans Glucagon, alpha cells
_______ stimulates fat synthesis, glycogen storage, lowers blood gluc Insulin, beta cells
underproduction of insulin; hyperglycemia diabetes mellitus
steroid hormones derived from _____ and are : cholesterol, corticosteroid hormones and estrogen, testosterone, progesterone
_____ are peptide hormones Oxytocin +ADH
monamine hormones are epinephrine, norepineph
functional unit of nervous system neurons
neurons convert stimuli to ________ signals electrochemical
neuron is divided into_______ that contains the nucleus, _______ are cytoplasmic extensions, _______ the cellular process that transmits impulses away from cell body cell body, dendrites, axon
__________ gaps between myelin nodes of ranvier
___________ swellings on axon synaptic terminals
resting membrane potential _______ which shows -70mv, the inside is more negative than the outside
the cause of the resting potential 1.neurons sel perm to K + neg charge proteins on the inside and impermeable to Na
threshold for action potential/depolarization initiation -50 mV
what happens during depolarization action potential initiated Na volt gates open - influx of Na
what causes repolarization Efflux of K, returns cell to more neg potential
____ overshoot of negative potential hyperpolarization
How does Na/K pump returns the gradients to resting potential activelt transport 3 NA out and 2 K in the cell
_______ prevents the backward travel of action potenial, ensure unidirectional refractory period
________ and _______ increase speed of action potential diameter of axon ; myelin
Synapse is the gap between ______ and the _____ of another neuron axon terminals, dendrites
action potential reaches the nerve terminal it __________ the synaptic vesicles and release _____ in the synapse depolarize, neurotransmitter
Anticholinesterase _______, Botulism toxin ______ , Curare_______ acetylcholine cont to affect post syn memb; prevents release of acetylcholine; blocks post synap receptors
________ neurons aka sensory neurons Afferent neurons :environ to brain and spinal cord
_______ neurons aka motor neurons Effernt neurons
CNS consist Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nerv syst is divided into Somatic and autonomic
autonomic is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic
Brains outer grey body consists cell bodies
Brains inner white matter contains mylinated axons
Forebrain contains _______ and _______ telencephalon: cerebral cortex; diencephalon: thalamus and hypothalamus
_______ integrates sensory input and motor responses (olfact) cerebral cortex
_______ relay info for spinal cord and cerebral cortex diencephalon: thalamus and hypothalamus
__________ relay for visual and auditory mid brain
________ posterior brain cerebellum , pons, medulla
_____ allow cortex to communicate with cerebellum pons
____ deals with balance, hand eye coordination cerebellum
________ controls involuntary processes medulla
________ conduit for sensory info to brain and motor info from brain Spinal cord
spinal cord has outer ______ and inner ____ white: axons; grey : cell bodies
____ responsible for voluntary movements Somatic nervous system
Involuntary nervous system Autonomic Nervous system
Fight flight response is controlled by Sympathetic Nervous System
primary neurotransmitter in sympathetic nervous system norepinephrine
_______ conserves energy and restores body to rest Parasympathetic nervous
primary neurotransmitter in parasympathetic nerv system acetylcholine
react to high illumination and sensitive to color Cones
react to lo illumination, important for night vision RODS
Fovea is rich in ______ is necessary for high acuity vision Cones
tympanic membrane ear drum
ossicles malleus, incus, stapes
____ amplify sound ossicles
_______ vibrate at same freq as incoming sound ear drum
Created by: smuttz


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