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Dat bio

Reproduction+ Vert Embryo

whats a sex cell gamete
whats a fertilized egg zygote
the sex of child is determined by____ the sperm
in men LH hormone stimulates _____ to release _______ testes, androgens mainly testosterone
SEVEN UP pathway for sperm: seminif tubules, epididymis, vas deferen,ejaculatory duct; urethral openin, penis
whats egg production oogenesis
spermstogenesis goes on continually while oogenesis is _______ cyclic
FSH stimulates primary oocyte to _______ complete meiosis 1: to form haploid cells :secondary oocyte and first polar body
Wats the fate of the secondary oocyte it dies if not fertilized, if fertilized it undergoes meiosis 2 and forms a zygote.
begins with the cessation of menstrual flow from previos cycle Follicular phase
Promotes development of follicle which secretes estrogen FSH
triggers ovulation, and has a surge during midcycle LH
________ is the release of egg from follicle ovulation
______ ______ follicle develops into corpus luteum which secretes estrogen and progesterone Luteal phase
_____ causes the endometrium to prepare for implantation Progesterone
_______ occurs if egg isnt fertilized; and drop in progesterone and estrogen Menstruation
____ produces hcG if fertilized placenta
____ _____ asexual reproduction in prokaryotes, dna replicate and cell divides in 2 equal sized cell binary fission
_______ replication of nucleus and unequal cytokinesis eg in yeast and hydra Budding
_______regrowth of lost/ injured body part regeneration
evolution trends towards increased ________ generation sporophyte (2n)
Gametophytes reproduce ______ and sporophytes reprodyce _____ sexually, asexually
2 daughter cells with exact copy of parent cells mitosis
nuclear division karyokinesis
cell division cytokinesis
_______ chromosome replicates to produce identical sister chromatids Interphase
______ chromosome condense and nuclear membrane dissolves Prophase
______ chromosomes align at the center of cell aka equator Metaphase
_______ chromosomes split so each chromatid is pulled to opposite poles Anaphase
______ nuclear membrane reforms around the newly formed chromosomes with the 2n Telophase
_______ _______forms during cytokinesis in animals,_______ _____forms during cytokinesis in plants cleavage furrow, cell plate
Formation of sex cell and produces haploid cells (gametes) Meiosis
_______ homologous chromosomes paired, synapsis and crossing over, (recombination) Prophase 1
____ homolog pair align on the equator Metaphase 1
____ homolog pairs separ8 and pulled to oppsite poles ANAPHASE 1
___ membrane forms around each new nucleus containing sister chromatids Telophase 1
______ is similar to mitosis Meiosis 2
Rapid division which increases nuclear ratio but not the cytoplasm cleavage
_______ cleavage can develop in an organism while ______ cleavage differentiate to specialized regions of the body Indeterminate, determinate
Stages of development to reach neurula stage 1.Cleavage-early mitotic division 2.Blastula- ball of undifferentiated cells 3.Gastrulation- endoderm, mesoderm ectoderm *neurulation occurs with gastrulation
why do vertebrate eggs vary in the amount yolk related to the reproductive characteristic: # of offspring and parental care
provide nutrients to embryo yolk
Animal pole________ and vegetal pole _______ has little no yolk so rapidly divides, has moderate or large amts of yolk that restricts cleavage division.
type of Cleavage divisions? Holoblastic equal- amphioxus, mammals holoblastic subequal- amphibians meroblastic- reptiles and birds
whats gastrulation reorganization of blastula to form multilayered structure: ecto meso endoderm.
what processes occur during gastrulation 1.disappearance of blastocoel which becomes primitive gut Archenetron 2.Induction of nearby cells
________forms the integument, central nervous system Ectoderm
_____ forms the digestive and resp tracrs Endoderm
_______ forms the musculoskeletal circulatory Mesoderm
In gastrulation the ______ differentiate to _______ which forms the notochord mesoderm, chordomesoderm,
Notochord induces the formation of _______ and ultimately ______ neural plate and Neurulation
From which tissue layer is the nervous system formed Ectoderm
neural tube made of ______ cells roll into a tube to form nerve cord ectoderm
____ ____ ____ contribute to skin pigments, nerve ganglia neural crest cells
_______ _______ forms sensory organ components: lens, inner ear etc. ectodermal placodes
Mesoderm differentiates to 3 layers epimere, mesomere, hypomere
epimere has repeated blocks called somites
somites are divided into 3 layers dermatome- skin musculature myotome- body musculature sclerotome-vertebrae
______ forms excretory and reproductive organs Mesomere
Inner layer of hypomere/ gut wall splanchnic hypomere
outer layer of hypomere/ body wall somatic hypomere
Amniotes have 4 membranes chorion- outer membrane allantois-connects gut and transports N2waste amnion- fluid filled protects the embryo yolk sac- transfer food to embryo
Placenta forms from chorion
umbilical cord forms from allantois
Created by: smuttz
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