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Unit 8


Special Economic ZoneDefinition
STIMSON DOCTRINE - January 7, 1932, in a note to Japan and China. - Named after Henry L. Stimson. - Principles also used in the Sumner Welles’ declaration
MARCO POLO BRIDGE INCIDENT - battle between Republic of China’s National Revolution Army and Empire of Japan’s Imperial Japanese Army. - July 7, 1937, outside of Pei-p’ing (now Beijing). - Prelude to Pacific side of WWII.
KOREAN WAR AND YALU RIVER - Yalu River is Chinese, river of the border between China and North Korea. Name originates from a “Manchu” word meaning, “the boundary between two fields”.War begins in the closing phases of WWII. - 1950 to 1953.- USA and Soviet Union divided responsibil
SUN YAT SEN AND THE KUOMINTANG (KMT) 1911- led a revolution aimed at driving Westerners out. (most of industry owned by foreigners).Established the Republic of China & became first president.His party = Kuomintang (KMT) = socialist. Couldn’t control the country together—lots of warlord strug
CHIANG KAI-SHEK Came into power in 1925.Kuomintang had gained control of southern China. Chiang decided to get rid of Communists—murdered 6,000 (Mao escaped to south). 1930 Chiang claimed to be undisputed ruler. Lost popularity (not getting rid of Japan & very corrupt).S
CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY (CCP) Founded by Mao in 1921. Allowed into the Kuomintang by Chiang Kai-shek. Built up by Mao Zedung (while hiding from Chiang) using the peasants (97% of population). Moved north with Mao on “Long March”
THE JAPANESE AND MANCHURIA 1931- Japan invaded Manchuria. Temporary alliance between CCP and KMT as they fought against Japanese invaders
MID-1930’S IN CHINA 3 groups fighting for control of China: Chiang Kai-shek & the Kuomintang. Mao Zedong & the Red Army. The Japanese invaders. The invasion by Japan delayed the showdown between Communists & Kuomintang till after WWII.
MAO ZEDONG (MAO TSE-TUNG) Mid-1930’s: Fled from Chiang to south, built up the Communist party—with the peasantry.Even when Japan invaded Manchuria, Chiang considered Mao #1 enemy, tried to get rid of him.Mao fled with Red Army on 9,000 km retreat (Long March) to the north.Mao’s f
GUERRILLA WARFARE Act quickly to win battles.Concentrate big force on small section of enemy.Take advantage of enemies’ limitations.Have the ability to MOVE.Maintain flexibility.Hit & run tactics (no long battles).Make use of people’s help.
THE LONG MARCH Mao retreated north with 100,000 in the Red Army. Traveled 9000 km (6000 miles), lost ¾ of the Red Army. Settled in the northern province of Shensi. Established the Yenan Soviet.
CHINESE CIVIL WAR, 1946-1949 CCP (the People’s Liberation Army = PLA) against KMT. U.S. (George Marshall) tried to negotiate a coalition government, but failed. Odds favoured the KMT (backed by the U.S.), but CCP win—disciplined and supported by the peasants
TAWAIN 1949, Chiang defeated in the Chinese Civil War. Chiang Kai-shek and forces flee to the island of Formosa (Taiwan). Establishes “Nationalist China”.
CHINESE REVOLUTION (1929-1949) Lasted 20 years. Both a war against alien occupation & a struggle to establish Communism. Not classic Marxist—peasants, not the workers were the leaders. An open struggle, not a conspiracy.
HUNDRED FLOWERS CAMPAIGN Mao invites intellectuals to comment/criticize party philosophy. Shuts down after too much criticism.
THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD, 1956 (1958) Mao’s new economic plan. 28,000 communes. “Walking on Two Legs”. Same time as floods & droughts. Great industrial and scientific activity. Muscle power. Small communal factories. Famine, killing 30,000,000.
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION, 1966-1976 Brutal period of oppression in China. Mao invites university students (Red Guard) and others to fight “revisionism”. Many high officials interrogated, demoted, imprisoned, disgraced. Had to carry “Little Red Book”. Pro-Mao propaganda. Cult of Personality.
MAO DIES, 1976 Power struggle after his death, included his wife. Chairman Hua is put into power. Less emphasis on "heavy industry." First time that workers goet paid for the work they had done. Return to capitalism beginning in 1980's under Deng Xiaoping.
DENG XIAOPING TAKES OVER, 1978 Pushed for reunification of HOng Kong. Tried to assure Taiwanese that if they rejoined with China, they would still have autonomy. He institutes agricultural reforms. Ecourages "open market." Accepts loans and foreign investments. Allowed contracting of p
SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES 1979, four specials economic zones open. Trade and investment with the west. Foreign firms allowed to operate. Cheap labour. Attracts Westerners. New technology and management. Most come from Hong Kong, taking advantage of cheap labour.
TIANNAMEN SQUARE, 1989 June 3-4, 1989. Democratic movements. Mass rally, 70th anniv. of last democratic uprising. Li peng told PLA to do what it takes to keep people in line. Open fire. 400-800 people are killed. Reaffirmed China's hardline. Economic changes were irreversible.
THE TANK MAN Captured the whole worlds attention. Stood for everything that China had been fighting for. Embarrassed China. Look like one this one man was stronger than the whole Chinese army. This many is still a mystery. Is thought to be Wang Weilin, 19 years old, w
Deng Xiaoping August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997, was the leader of the communust party after Mao dies. Was in power from 1978 to th early 90's. Started the Chinese Economic reform.
Created by: drolston