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Engineering Test 1

QuestionAnswer
Four Phases to the Engineering Design Process 1.Defining the problem 2.Developing concepts and solutions 3.Evaluating solutions 4.Communicating and implementing the design
Define the Problem *understand the problem *always keep an open mind *understand the opportunity *for company means new product in a timely, cost-effective manner *what requirments for solution
Developing Concepts and Solutions *design paraments and requirments *generating a set of conceptual solutions *concepts are evaluated *typically more than one right answer *generate as many ideas as possible
Evaluating Solutions *check thoroughly, usually will find problems in design and will need refinement *Iteration the act of repeating the process
Communicating and Implementing the Design *said that the design is description, drawing, the report, etc.. *presented in a complete and compelling manner *skecthes, drawings, powerpoint, etc...
Development Process *is a sequence of steps that transforms a set of inputs into a set of outputs *steps to conceive, design, and commercialize a product
5 Steps of a Development Process 1.Quality Assurance 2.Coordination 3.Planning 4.Management 5.Improvement
Quality Assurance *milestones the process will pass through and quality checkpoints
Coordination *master plan defines the role of each member *whats expected and how to exchange information
Planning *natural milestones corresponding to the completion of each phase *anchors the schedule of overall development project
Management *benchmarking for assessing the performance of an on going development effort by defining the method for a manager to compare the actual events
Improvement *careful documentation of development process to help identify opportunites for improvements
Generic Development Process (6 phases) 1.Planning 2.Concept Development 3.System 4.Detail Design 5.Testing 6.Production
Planning *phase zero *begins with corporate satrategy and includes assessment of technology developments and market objectives *output of phase is project mission statement which specifies the target market for product, business goals, key assumptions,
Concept Development *the needs of the target market are identified *alternative product concepts are generated *evaluated or more concepts are selected for further development
System-Level Design *deining the categories and sub categories *define the final assembly scheme for production *flow diagram of product development and assembly process
Detail Design *includes complete specifications of the geometry, materials, and tolerances of all product components *the exact process in which components are acquired *includes drawings, documentation on vendors, specifications, details fo cost analysis
Testing and Refinement *construction and evaluation of prototypes *goal is to find unforseen pittfalls and problems of the product with relation to proformance
Production Ramp-up *product is made using intending manufacturing systems and processes *ramp-up is for training workforce and to work out any remaining problems in the production process
Customer Needs *ensure that the product is fucosed on the customer needs *identify latent or hidden needs as well as explicit needs *Latents means needs that might not be clear *provide a fact base for justifying the product *create records
Cutstomer Needs *ensure that no need if forgotten *develop a comon understanding of customer needs among group
Use Environment engineers, designers, working with customers
Chain of Activities *mission statement *identify customer needs *establish target specifications *generate product concepts *select product concepts *test product concepts *set final specifications *plan downstream development *development plan
Methods to Identify Customer Needs (5) 1.Gather Raw Data 2.Interpret Raw Data 3.Organizethe needs into a hierarchy 4.Establish the relative importance of needs 5.Reflect on the results and the process
Gather Raw Data *interviews *focus groups *observing the product in use
Techniques that apply to the 3 methods of gather raw data *when and why do you use the product *walk us through a typical use *what do you like the most *what do you dislike *what issues do you consider when purchasing the product *what improvements would you make to the product
General hints for effective interaction *go with the flow *use visual *suppress preconceived hypothes *customer demonstrate the product *be alert for surprises and express latent needs *watch for non verbal information
Documenting *audio recording *notes*video recording*still photograph
Interpret Raw Data in Terms of Customer Needs *customer needs expressed written statment the results interpreting the raw data gathered
5 Guidelines *express the need in terms of what the product has to do *express the need as specifically as the raw data *use positive *express the need as an attribute of the product *avoid the words must and should
Organize the Needs into a Hierarchy *should be a list of 50-300 *organzine needs into importance *consists of primary needs are general *secondary *tertiary needs
6 ways to organize 1.print or write out each statement 2.eliminate redundant statements 3.group according similarities 4.label each group 5.create supergroups 6.review and edit needs
Establish the Relative Importance of Needs *numerical importance weighted two approachs *rely on concensus of team *further customers surveys
Reflect on the Results and the Process *have we interacted with all of the important types of customers *are we able to see past the existing needs *are there areas of inquiry we should pursue *which customers that we talked to have come back *what do we know now and were we surprised
cont. on relection *did we involve everyone *how can we improve
Product Specifications *the precise description of what the product has to do *are set early in the process but sometimes need revise *established after customer needs have been identify
Target Specification (4 steps) 1.prepare list of metrics 2.collect competitive benchmarks 3.set ideal and marginally acceptable yarget values 4.reflect on the results and process
Prepare Metrics *reflect directly as possible to degree to satisfies customers *simple needs metric: relationship between needs and metric *metric: measurement *should be practical
Collect Competitive Benchmarking Information *compare the market *what are the differences *what are the small *how do we compare
Set Ideal amd marginally acceptable Target Values *ideal value: best result that the team could want *marginally acceptable: just barely make the product commercially viable
4 Ways to Express Metrics 1.at least x 2.at most x 3.between x and y 4.exactly x
Reflect on the Results and the Process *may require iteration *are members game *should consider multipe products or options *are any specifications missing
Teamwork *good participantion *respect *careful listening *leadership *constructively manage conflict *fun, like to be there *empowermembers *sense of purpose *commongoal
4 Teams 1.pseudo 2.potential 3.cooperative or real teams 4.high performance
pseudo perform below the level of the average member
potential don't quite get going but struggle or slightly above average
real team or cooperative perform quite well
high performing perform at extaordinary levels
Types of Learning Groups 4 1.pseudo 2.traditional 3.cooperative 4.high performance
pseudo assigned to work together but have no interest
traditional assign to work together and accept they must do
cooperative assigned to work together and relieved to do so
high performance assigned together and out perform
Teamworking Skills 4 types 1.Forming 2.Functioning 3.Formulating 4.Fermenting
Forming Skills *initial management *move into teams quietly *stay with team *take turns *no put downs
Functioning Skills *team management *share ideas and opinions *ask for facts and reasoning *give direction to teams work *encourage support *energize the team
Formulating Skills *summarize out loud *seek accuracy *help team find clever ways to remember *sk others to plan
Fermenting Skills *criticize ideas not people *differentiate the ideas and the reasoning *integrate ideas into single position *ask for justification *extend answer *probe into questions
Effective Communication 3 1.critical listening 2.sympathetic 3.creative
Critical listening *seperate fact from fiction
Sympathetic *don't talk-listen *don't give advice- listen don't judge-listen
Leadership *honest *forward looking *inspiring *competent *fair minded *supportive *brood-minded *intelligent *straight forward *courages *dependable
5 Practices 10 Behavorial 1.Challening the Process 1.search for opportunities 2.experiment and take risks
cont 5 and 10 2.Inspiring a Shared Vision 3.envision the future 4.enlist others
cont 5 and 10 3.Enabling Others to Act 5.foster collaboration 6.strengthen others
cont 5 and 10 4.Modeling the Way 7.set the example 8.plan small wins
cont 5 and 10 5. Encouraging the heart 9.recongnize individual contributions 10.celabrate accomplishments
Decision Making Strategies 7 1.decision by authority 2.expert member 3.average of members opinions 4.decision by authority after disscussion 5.minority control 6.majority control 7.consensus
Quality of the Decision Stratagies 5 1.resources of team members well used 2.time is welled used 3.decision is correct or of high quality 4.the decision is put into effect fully by all members 5.problem solving ability of the team is enchanced
Conflict Management 5 1.withdrawal 2.forcing 3.smoothing 4.compromise 5.confrontation
Ethical Corporate climate an environment that is conducive to morally responsible
Loyality *to the employer 1.agency: stealing, doing ones job, etc.. 2.attitude: attitudes, emotions, and a sense of personal identity
Collegiality *loyal to your team *pursue common vision
National Society of Professional Engineers engineers shall not attempt to injure malicisously ofr falsly directly or indirectly the reputation or prospects of other engineers
Concept Generation approximate description of the technology, working principle, and form *must be able to market concept *full exploration of design *reduce conclicts *spread out concepts*50 to 300 ideas *narrow down to 5 to 20
5 step method 1.clarify the problem 2.search externally 3.search internally 4.explore systematically 5.reflect on the solutions and the process
Created by: shoare