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Histology - Blood

Med’11 Histology Blood

What is blood? It is a specialized unique type of connective tissue composed of blood cells and plasma (extracellular matrix)
What are the functions of blood? Provide tissues & cells w/nutrients & O2 Carry waste products such as CO2 Transport hormones Carry drugs, elements & cells that protects the body from infections & foreign bodies. Homeostatic role based on thermoregulatory & buffering
What are the types of blood cells? RBCs WBCs Platelets
Describe the shape of RBCs. The normal shape is rounded non nucleated biconcave discs. Its size is between 7 and 8 micrometers
What is the name of abnormally shaped RBCs? Poikilocytosis
What is anisocytosis? Anisocytosis is a medical term meaning that a patient's red blood cells are of unequal size.
What is the normal number of RBCs? In males: 5 − 5.5 million/millimeters cubed In females: 4.5 − 5 million/millimeters cubed
What is an increase in RBCs called? a decrease? Increase in number of RBCs is called polycythemia Decrease in number of RBCs is called anemia
What is the function of RBCs? Gas exchange
What is the Rouleaux formation? It is the sticking together of RBCs side by side like a pile of coins
How is the shape of RBCs suitable to its functions? *Biconcave surf of RBC inc surf area for gas exchange *Cell membr is v. selective&v. elastic held Hb in RBC in colloidal form & allows cell to change shape&squeeze in small capillaries *Absence of nucleus & organoids allow more space for more Hb in cel
Based on presence of specific granules, WBCs are divided into _____ and _____. Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
What is the total leukocytic count? The total number of leukocytes/cubic mm
What is the average total leukocytic count? 4,000-11,000/mm3
What is the distinctive structure of a neutrophil? 3-4 lobed nucleus connected by thin threads of chromatin. In females, the neutrophils are characterized by the presence of the Barr body. It is one of the two X chromosomes in an inactive state.
What is the size of a neutrophil and the average % found in blood? Size: 9-12 micrometers Avg %: 60-70%
Describe the types of granules present in neutrophils. Specific:contain lysozyme (bactericidal) e.g. collagenase, lactoferrin&alkaline phosphatase enz Nonspecific(azurophilic):are primary lysosomes containing hydrolytic enz (hydrolase, myeloperoxidase) Tertiary:contain gelatinase, cathepsin&glycoprotein.
What are the functions of neutrophils? *Phagocytosis of bacteria&foreign bodies *Synth of leukotriens that promotes migration of more neutro. to site of infection Chemoattractant for eosino.&monocytes for site of infection Neutro. release chem mediators tht stim. bone marrow to prod neutro
What is the size of a basophil and the average % found in blood? Size: 12-15 micrometers
What is the distinctive structure of a basophil? S shaped nucleus (bilobed) Small Golgi, few mitochondria and many rER.
Describe the types of granules present in basophils Specific granules: stain metachromatically reddish violet with basic dyes SRS of anaphylaxis, glycosaminoglycans, histamine and heparin. Azurophilic granules: small granules containing hydrolytic enzymes
What is basophilia? Condition where the basophil quantity is abnormally elevated
What is the function of basophils? Mediate inflammatory response. They bind to immunoglobulin E (IgE) in allergic reaction and leads to release of its vasoactive substance. Play a role in hypersensitivity (anaphylactic shock) (i.e. vasodilatation and smooth muscle contraction)
What is the percentage of B-Lymphocytes in the blood? 25% of lymphocytes
Where do B-Lymphocytes develop and mature? What is their life span? Develop: bone marrow Mature: bone marrow Life span: 3 months
What is the function of B-Lymphocytes? Humeral immunity
What does the B-Lymphocyte have in its plasma membrane? Fe receptors & antibodies
What is the percentage of T-Lymphocytes in the blood? 75% of lymphocytes
What does the T-Lymphocyte have in its plasma membrane? T-cell receptors
Where do T-Lymphocytes develop and mature? What is their life span? Develop: bone marrow Mature: cortex and medulla of the thymus Life span: years
What is the function of T-Lymphocytes? Cell mediated immunity
What is the percentage of monocytes in the blood? 3-8% leukocytes
What is the function of a monocyte? They are highly phagocytic cells. They are transformed to macrophages at the site of inflammmation. They concentrate the antigens and present them to the lymphocytes.
What is the distinctive structure of a monocyte? 9-15 micrometers Nucleus is large eccentric, indented and kidney shaped Cytoplasm is bluish-grey and has small number of azurophilic granules, with occasional vacuole like space EM: show glycogen granules
What is monocytosis? Increase in number of monocytes (more than 1%) They increases in infectious mononucleosis and chronic inflammaton.
What is the origin of platelets? What is their size? They are derived from megakaryocyte Size: 2-4 mm.
What is the average number of platelets found in blood? What is the life span of platelets? Number: 250-400 thousands/mm3 Life span is less than 14 days
How do platelets appear under the light microscope? electron microscope? LM: Appear as rounded or oval cell fragments derived from singly/in clumps EM: a. Peripheral clear region called hyalomere b. Denser granular center called the granulomere It show few mitochondria and mictotubules with actin and myosin.
Created by: Salma O



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