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Unit 1

I & E, Macromolecules, and Enzymes

Controlled Experiment An experiment in which all variables must be kept the same except one.
Monomer - Carbohydrate Monosaccharide
Nucleic Acids A macromolecule used to store and transmit genetic information. They are made up of units called nucleotides, and there are two types: DNA & RNA.
Iodine A chemical indicator used to detect the presence of the polysacchardie starch in a solution. The solution turns from brown to purple-black when starch is present.
Denatured When the shape of a protein molecule is permanently changed due to changes int emperature, pH, or ionic conditions.
How to affect enzyme activity Changes in pH or temperature (i.e. lower the pH, increase the pH, lower the temperature, or increase the temperature)
Hypothesis A possible explanation of an observation based on logic, inference, and experience, that can be tested. (A prediction or suggestion)
Carbohydrate (monomer, polymer, example of a monomer, example of a polymer) The monomer of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, and the polymer is a polysaccharide. Starch is an example of a polysaccharide and its monomer is the monosaccharide glucose.
What would cause the shape and/or appearance of a protein to change? Changes in temperature or pH could cause the protein to become denatured.
Why do we put food in the refrigerator? Low temperatures reduce the action of ripening enzymes.
Proteins A macromolecule made up many amino acids bonded together. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body.
Macromolecules Huge molecules, such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, that are found in living things. They are created from a few small, simple monomers.
Macromolecules are also known as (2) polymers & organic molecules
Lipids A macromolecule composed of a glycerol molecule bonded to 3 chains of fatty acids. They are used for energy storage and for biological membranes.
Enzyme The enzyme binds with its substrates at its active site and helps a reaction occur, which lowers the activation energy of the reaction. The enzyme's active site is not changed by the reaction and the enzyme is reused(it is NOT used up by the reaction).
Unavoidable experimental error An error in an experiemnt that cannot be predicted or controlled, such as genetic variation in subjects.
Independent variable The factor in the experiment that is being tested and is changed intentionally; the thing that is different between each group.
Theory A highly tested, generally accepted principle.
Scientific Method (Steps) 1. Identify a problem 2. Create a hypothesis 3. Set up a controlled experiment 4. Record & Analyze results 5. Draw a conclusion
Created by: vanessa.hood