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AP US history Ch 7

Washington's Time in office 1789-1797
Struggles as New Nation- Financial Issues no uniform way to collect taxes- war debt
Struggles as New Nation- No established foreign policy N.A. & European Powers
Struggles as New Nation- Lack of Military Strength navy disbanded after Rev. War, standing army of 400 soldiers
Early Legislation under Washington Congress reinacts NW. ordinance to deal w/ distribution. Judiciary Act of 1789
Washington's Cabinet of Closest Advisors Established 1 of many precedents set for future admin
Wash Cabinet- Head of Dept of State Thomas Jefferson, foreign affairs
Wash Cabinet- Dept of Treasury Alexander Hamilton, financial issues
Wash Cabinet- Dept of War Henry Knox
Wash Cabinet- Dept of Justice Attorney General
Early American Debt U.S. govt 54 mil. 42 to americans. 12 to european countries. 25 collected debt of states.
Fed & State Govts sold bonds to help finance REv. War. due to high inflation -> $ of bonds lowered tremedously. purchased by speculators for prices under face value.
Hamiltons Plan- Report on Public Credit 1. pay back europe immediately (all foreign debt)to establish u.s. as trustworthy. 2. fed govt assume state debt. (to fund, ham sold bonds to wealthy americans & now wealthy elite are financially vested into success of new gov)
Objections to Hamilton Plan 1. didn't like that speculators would get large profits. 2. several states (especially south) already paid off debt
National Bank 1791 felt necessary for central bank to deposit money from taxation and provide funding for future govt. projects (intense debate over bank v.s. no bank)deal made for 20 yr charter for first bank (in exchange for support.. capital moved to D.C.)
Critics on National Bank (strict interpretation) jeff- believed it was unconstitutional, only favored wealthy, corrupt congress(Beginning of 2 political parties and loose/strict) unconstitutional-madison
2nd report on Public Credit to help further fund, excise tax on liquor introduced (impacted farmers who distin corn and ryne using whiskey making it easier to transport)
Whiskey Rebellion 1794 group of farmers in Pitt (resistance group) if they refused to pay, travel 5 hours to philly. wash sent 13,000 troops to put down 300 farmers. clear message to follow federal law and that boycott/rebellion time for tax is over. govt low taxes&try in state
Foreign Affairs- Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 Gen. Anthony wane leads U.s. Troops to victory over shawnee indians.
response to Battle of Fallen Timbers- 1795 Treaty of Greenville u.s. paid natives 10,000 dollars and receives rest of north west territory (land now ohio and indiana)
Jay's Treaty 1795 w/ Britain results from brit and french fighting (u.s. in middle) violated wash procl of neutra. by messing with u.s. ships. Gen. John Jay makes deal.
Jays Treaty 1795 deals & results 1. opens trade with u.s. and england. (exports w/ england rise)2. brit agree to remove troops from NW (don't hold up) 3. limited u.s. trade w/ france. (did not address brit messing w/ ships at sea) ruined jay politically & protected neutrality
Pickney Treatys (Treaty of San Lorenzo) 1796 w/ Spain solidified border between souther u.s. and spanish floridia & promised to stop seminoles from raiding in us. *opened up miss river for u.s. trade includeing no taxes to use port of new orl. (Important for western farmers)
Cherokees in Am. Rev. Split sides, 1781 treaty conference. peaceful cherokees pursuaded am. not to take any more land.1783-1785.. after war.. u.s. pressure to give up 8,000 miles. 1794 shawnee allies lost at BOFT. last cherokees submit to u.s. rule. (u.s. mil power&land loss)
Implementing Govt 1. elect pres&Cong. 1788 1st election (Fed Sweep) anti fed won only 2/20 seats in senate. 2/59 seats in HOR. Pres-Wash. VP-Adams. first meeting in NY. Pres required senate "advice and consent" congress determined organization of cabinet
Judiciary Act of 1789 established fed. district courts operating on local procedures. supr has final jurisdiction. allowed states to maintain control(using own laws) 13 fed district courts. & supr court 6 members.
congress could not pass expo facto laws (punishing for previous legal actions) bills of attainder (punishment/guilty w/o trial)
Bill of Rights James Madison had leading role. (del at philly refused to sign const. & states ratified under condition of having)
Secretary of Treasury- Alexander Hamilton roles and qualities in charge of setting admin. domestic priorities. extreme nationalist( wanted strong nat. govt. & eco enviromental attractive to investment) nations credit weakened abroad and at home.
reports on public credit- permanent debt repaying am. citizens. .. pay interest on bond holders instead. only burden on taxpayers is smallannual interest. uphold national credit at minimum expense. rich profitholders rewarded and wartime sacrifices ignored
hamilton push for national bank (loose interpretation) reminded washington of necessary and proper clause. was not expressly prohibited
Fed dominated New England, NJ, SC, PA, NY
Dem-Rep southerners who found few benefits and opposed hamilton, westerners/mid atlantic- wanted republicanism "true principles"
national gazette phillip frenea, anti fed, (Jeff&mad)
Gazette of U.s. Hamilton, Fed, (Wash&adams)
Created by: marlex