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# PH - Thermdnmcs

### Physics: Thermodynamics - KAPLAN/MCAT in a box

Calorie A unit of heat (C) that equals 10^3 calories (c) or 4,184 Joules.
Conduction Form of heat transfer where heat energy is directly transferred between molecules through molecular collisions or direct contact.
Convection Form of heat transfer applying only to fluids (liquids and gases) where heated material transfers energy by bulk flow and physical motion.
First Law of Thermodynamics The change in internal energy of a system (ΔU) is equal to the heat (Q) transferred into the system minus the energy lost by the system when it performs work (W). ΔU = Q - W.
Heat of Fusion The heat of transformation corresponding to a phase change from either solid to liquid or liquid to solid.
Heat of Transformation The amount of heat required to change the phase of a substance, calculated by the equation q = mL, where q is heat, m is the mass of the substance, and L is the heat of transformation for that substance.
Heat of Vaporization The heat of transformation corresponding to a phase change from liquid to gas or from gas to liquid.
Kelvin The most commonly used temperature scale (SI units) that ranges up from absolute zero. T[K] = T[C] + 273.
Pressure The force per unit area: F/A.
Radiation Form of heat transfer accomplished by electromagnetic waves, which can travel through a vacuum.
Second Law of Thermodynamics When a thermodynamic process moves a system from one state of equilibrium to another, the entropy (S) of that system combined with that of its surroundings will either increase (irreversible processes) or remain unchanged (reversible processes).
Temperature A measure of the heat content that a body possesses, measured on the Kelvin, Celsius, or Fahrenheit scale.
Thermal Expansion The expansion of a solid as a result of increasing temperatures, calculated by the equation ΔL = αLΔT, where L is the length, α is the coefficient of linear expansion, and T is the temperature.
Thermodynamics The study of heat transfer and its effects.
Volume Expansion The expansion in volume of a liquid as a result of increasing temperatures, calculated by the equation ΔV = βVΔT, where V is volume and β is the coefficient of volume expansion.
Created by: miibo