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pH Measurement of amount of free H+ in a solution. pH = -log[H+] [H+] = antilog (-pH)
Acids release H+ into water
Bases Accept Free hydrogen ions
Buffers minimize changes in pH in a solution. Bind Any excess h+ present (decrease pH) release h+ if too few are present(increase pH)
Henderson hasselback equation pH = pka + log([A-]/[HA]) A = deprotonated form, HA = protonated
pH above and below pKa pH above pKa = more OH- ions, take away H+ from molecules, more negative pH below pKa = more H+ ions, add h+ onto molecule, make more positive
Isoelectric point calculation First find the one with net zero charge. Then find two pKas that go from +1 to 0 charge and from -1 to 0 charge. Add them up, divide by two. that is your pI.
Isoelectric point pH value in which net charge is zero. pI below 6 = acidic pI above 8 = basic pI 6-8 = neutral
Buffering zone maximally resists buffer at this. pKa +1 and -1.
Papain breaks down proteins. most active between pH 6 and 7. Enzyme. cysteine 25 and histidine 159 are involved. charged at this pH. Enzymatic activity lost when lower pH, cysteine is protonated higher pH, histidine deprotonated.
pH of blood Must be around 7.4. below 7.4 = acidosis. indiciation of diabetes. Serious, many enzymes pH dependent. above 7.4 = alkalosis. caused by hyperventilation and persistent vomiting.
Below pH 7.3, what happens to the blood Carbon dioxide cant be removed efficiently.
Why does extreme acidosis and alkalosis lead to death? protein is denatured. change in protein shape.
Zwitterion dipolar. physiological pH, carboxyl deprotonated, amine protonated.
Ionic state of AA depends on pH of solution. low pH = AA protonated at amine and carboxyl, + charge. high pH = AA deprotonated at amine and carboxyl, - charge. neutral pH = zwitter ion. also called isoelectric point.
How is blood pH maintained? CArbonic acid-Bicarbonate buffer, kidneys- take too long. Lungs faster way to control pH.
Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffer Most important buffer for maintaining pH in blood. [HCO3] in blood fixed by [CO2] in gas phase. [CO2] in lungs depends on rate of CO2 production in metabolism and rate of breathing
Respiratory Acidosis acidosis resulting from failure of lungs to eliminate CO2 as fast as possible as it is produced
Increasing breathing during exercise Meant to counteract pH lowering effects of exercise by removing CO2, component of principal pH buffer in blood
Slow breathing vs Fast breathing Slow breathing, raises CO2 content, hypoventilaton. fast breathing, lowers CO2 concent, hyperventilation
If H+ ions released into blood H+ ions react with HCO3- to form H2CO3. Carbonic Anhydrase converts this to CO2 and H2O, releases CO2 as gas in lungs. H2CO3 remains constant.
If OH- ions are released into blood OH- react with H2CO3, produce HCO3- and H2O. More CO2 dissolves in solution, H2CO3 remains constant.
If a person hyperventilates pCO2 in lungs drops. lungs remove excess CO2 from blood(raise pH). This ultimate causes a drop in H+ concentration and results in an increase in bloods pH. causes alkalosis
Increase CO2 in blood/lungs lower pH
Lower BiCarbonate lower pH
Created by: nady