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Biochem 2-1, AA

UMDNJSOM

QuestionAnswer
All amino acids produce by living systems are called alpha amino acids. they all have an amino group attached to the alpha carbon
Enantiomer alpha-carbon is asymmetric. It is an enantiomer. Stereoisomer that exhibit a property called chirality. Mirror images.
All protein amino acids are what type of enantiomers L Enantiomers. amino residue is on the left. Except for glycine.
Protein turnover degradation of proteins. continuous process as proteins in the body are constantly replaced.
Amino Acid Uses in body Source of nitrogen (75% for proteins, dna/rna, heme, Ach, hormones) and some can be used for energy during starvation.
Nonpolar aliphatic AA glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine
Glycine H, is a D-enantiomer
Alanine CH3
Valine CH / \ CH3 CH3
Leucine CH2 CH / \ CH3 CH3
Isoleucine CH- CH3 CH2 CH2
Aromatic(hydrophobic) AA phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine.
Phenylalanine CH2 Ph
Tryptophan CH2-(2-amino)-cyclopentane-Ph
Tyrosine CH2 Ph OH Can form hydrogen bonds through its OH- grouup. Ability often used by cells to carry out protein function. Relatively reactive.
Positive Charged(Basic) Hydrophilic Histidine, Lysine, Arginine. Important in electrostatic interactions between substances (ie:dna binding)
Histidine CH2 2-4-dinitro-cycolopentane
Lysine Ch2 ch2 ch2 ch2 nh3+
Arginine Ch2 ch2 ch2 nh c=NH NH3+
Negatively charged(acidic) hydrophilic Aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, glutamine.
Aspartate Ch2 C // \ O O-
Glutamate CH2 Ch2 C // \ O O-
Asparagine CH2 C // \ O NH2
Glutamine CH2 CH2 C // \ O NH2
Hydroxyl Containing AA Serine/Threonine. Hydrophilic group makes them more hydrophilic and reactive than alanine and valine. OH group hydrogen bonds
Serine CH2 OH
Threonine CH-OH CH3
Cyclic AA Proline. side chain bonded to both nitrogen and carbon atoms. It is THREE Carbon side chain. Top one bonds to alphacarbon. Bottom one bonds to amino end nitrogen. makes a cyclopentane.
Sulfur Containing AA Cysteine and Methionine SH group hydrogen bonds with water
Cysteine CH2 SH Important due to ability to form covalent bonds with other cysteine. Disulfide bonds.
Methionine CH2 CH2 S CH3
Essential Amino Acids Essential for metabolism, health, growth, not synthesized by the body, must be obtained from food. PVT TIM HALL
Created by: nady