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Unit 1 Test Review

APUSH Unit 1 Test Review

Where did the Native Americans come from? Siberia over the land bridge into Alaska
When did the Native Americans come to America? During the last Ice Age 12,000-35,000 years ago in waves of migration
Why did the Native Americans come to America? They were hunter-gatherers in search of food
Where did the term "Indians" come from? Columbus thought he was in The Indies, and NEVER realized he wasn't in The Indies
Who was the first to claim America as "The New World"? German mapmaker, Amerigo Vespucci
How many Indians lived in the US? 3-10 million
How many Indians lived in the Mexico and Central America? 20-30 million
How many Indians lived in South America? 30-40 million
How many Indians lived in the New World? 50-75 million, SAME AS EUROPE!
What was the myth of the "virgin land"? The fact that America was lightly populated when the Europeans came
Why were the civilizations of Americas considered primitive? No horses and guns, wheel, iron (used silver and gold), had human sacrifice
What were the Olmec known for? Began the agricultural revolution in 1500 BC
What were the Maya known for? They were astronomers, mathematicians, had a calendar, had glyphs
What were the Toltec known for? First civilization, Teotihuacan
What were the Aztecs known for? Irrigation system, Tenochtitlan, conquered by Cortes in 1519, had population of 300,000 (MORE THAN EUROPEAN CITY)
What were the Inca known for? Elaborate system of roads
Why were the Indians considered less advanced than the civilizations in America? No form of writing, no large empires/cities, always involved in wars
What was life like for the NW Indians? Fishing, wealthy, stratified social structure
What was life like for the Seed Gatherers? Gathering
What was life like for the Southwest Indians? Agriculture, trade
What was life like for the Plains Indians? Nomadic (buffalo)
What was life like for the Eastern Woodland Indians? Hunting (mobile), agriculture (CBS)
What was life like for the Southeast Indians? Hunting, agriculture
What characteristics did the Indians share? Tribalism, concept of nature & man's relationship with it, land ownership, less advanced materially
What have been the 2 dominant stereotypes of the Native Americans? Savages, noble savages
What are two unique characteristics about the Iroquois? Matriarchal, politically organized (Confederacy)
Who started the Iroquois Confederacy? Hiawatha
What did America exchange with Europe? Food (potato, corn) & silver, gold
What was the effect of exporting food to Europe? Dramatic population increase
What was the effect of exporting silver & gold to Europe? Inflation, Spain becomes the greatest power, Commercial Revolution (capitalism)
What did Europe exchange with America? Diseases (small pox, influenza, measles, malaria), new animals (horses, cattle, pigs, sheep), new technology/goods (guns, metal, alcohol, cloth)
What was the effect of diseases in America? Killed off 90% of the Indians
Nez Pearce Seed Gatherer
Chinook Northwest
Shoshone Seed Gatherer
Yurok Northwest
Yakuts Seed Gatherers
Chumash Seed Gatherers
Ute Southwest
Navajo Southwest
Hopi Southwest
Apache Southwest
Pueblo Southwest
Hopi Southwest
Zuni Southwest
Blackfoot Plains
Crow Plains
Araphaho Plains
Sioux Plains
Cheyenne Plains
Shawnee Plains
Kiowa Plains
Comanche Plains
Winnebago Eastern Woodlands
Chippewa Eastern Woodlands
Ottawa Eastern Woodlands
Huron Eastern Woodlands
Iroquois Eastern Woodlands
Choctaw Southeast
Cherokee Southeast
Creek Southeast
Seminole Southeast
What was the Reformation? Questioning of the Catholic Church
Who questioned the Catholic Church? Germany: Martin Luther & Protestantism Switzerland: John Calvin & Calvinism England: Henry VIII & the Anglican Church
What was the political status of Europe in 1492? Spain's Isabella and Ferdinand, centralization of power
What was the socio-economic status of Europe in 1492? Decline of feudalism, birth of the middle class (merchants, artisans)
What was the Renaissance? Rediscovered classical learning, Age of Reason, adventure & curiosity, inventions for sailing
What were the 3G's for exploration? Gold, god, glory
What was the religious status of England during this time? Anglican Church & Catholicism (back and forth), Puritans
Who were the Puritans? Wanted to purify the Anglican Church
Who were the two houses that governed England during this time? Tudors and the Stuarts
Who was a part of the Tudors and what religion did they implement? Henry VII (C) Henry VIII (E) Edward VI (E) Mary (C) Elizabeth I (E)
Who was a part of the Stuarts and what religion did they implement? James I (E) Charles I (E) Charles II (E) James II (C)
What is Charles I known for? Dissolving Parliament, Puritan Revolution
What is Charles II known for? Restoring England's independence, kicking out the Catholics, giving joint stock companies power over the colonies
What is James II known for? Allowed Catholics into Parliament, constitutional monarchy, Glorious Revolution - William and Mary
What is Oliver Cromwell known for? Interregnum - England ruled by common man & NOT the monarchy
What was the socio-economic status of England during this time? Rise of middle class, enclosure movement
What was the enclosure movement? Government took away land from farmers
What was the cultural status of England at this time? Renaissance (Shakespeare & Sir Francis Drake)
What was an encomienda? Grant to the conquistadors for land only if they try to Christianize the Indians
Who was Bartólome de Las Casas? Priest of the Caribbean who converted Indians there
What were the two kinds of Spanish settlement? Presidio and mission
How were the Spanish colonies governed? Centralized rule from Spain through a governor
What was the class structure within the Spanish colonies? 1. Peninsulares (Europeans) 2. Creoles (Spanish born in America) 3. Artisans 4. Mestizos (Euro-Indian mix) 5. Mulattos 6. Slaves
Who dominated the society and economy in the Spanish colonies? Peninsulares & Creoles (aristocratic)
What was the French motivation for settlement? Fur trade in America and sugar in the West Indies
Where were the French colonies located? Louisiana, Canada, West Indies
Why was Canada and Louisiana lightly populated? Extreme weather, must be Catholic, little freedom
Who were the couer de bois? Fur traders
When was the French and Indian war? 1756
What was the Dutch's motivation for settlement? Fur trade & rivalry with England
What happened when the Dutch was conquered by England? New Netherlands renamed New York
What is mercantilism? Then need to export more than import, BENEFITS THE MOTHER COUNTRY, goal was to keep money within British Empire
What were the first two colonies in Virginia? Jamestown and Roanoke
How did John Smith save Jamestown? Established marshal law - no work, no eat
Why was Jamestown such a fail? Located near a swamp - diseases, water contamination ==> DEATH
Who helped the colonists in Jamestown? Powhatan and Pocahontas
What did John Rolfe do for Virginia? Began the tobacco craze
Why were there labor problems in Virginia? Headlight system & indentured servitude - Bacon's Rebellion
What is the American Paradox? 1619 - first African slaves sold & establishment of the House of Burgesses
What were the conditions to be a member of the House of Burgesses? 1. White 2. Male 3. Over 30 4. Own land
What the sole condition for not being eligible for slavery? If a person was Catholic
What was the political status of the Virginia colony? Royal governor appointed by the king, House of Burgesses
What was the structure of the House of Burgesses? Upper house: governor's council Lower house: colonists elect
What was the economic status of the Virginia colony? Dominated by tobacco
How were the settlements in Virginia set up? Spread out in rural areas
What was the religious status in the Virginia colony? Anglican church
What was the mortality rate in the Virginia colony? 42 years, 50% die before age of 20
What was the sex ratio in the Virginia colony? 6:1/4:1 - lots more men!
What were the three types of colonies? Royal, proprietary, self-governing
What was a royal colony? King appoints a governor
How many royal colonies were there? Eight
Which were the proprietary colonies? Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware
What was a proprietary colony? People who own land choose the governor
Which were the self-governing colonies? Rhode Island and Connecticut
What was a self-governing colony? colonists elect their own governor
What were the 3 levels of colonial government? King in Parliament & Board of Trade royal governor colonial assembly
What was the period of "benign neglect"? laws existed but the government didn't do anything about it
What power did the royal governor have in the 13 colonies? veto and appointment of power
How was the colonial assembly in the 13 colonies structured? upper house: governor's council lower house: assembly (elected by colonists)
Who must taxes be approved by before they go into effect? lower house
What were the Navigation Acts? implement mercantilism, goods can only be shipped on British ships, enumerated items (tobacco, rice, furs, sugar) could only be sold within the British Empire, others would have a pay a tax at British port
What was the economy of the New England Colonies? trade, fishing
What came about as a result of the Navigation Acts? smuggling
What was the economy of the middle colonies? "breadbasket" (wheat, corn)
What was the economy of the South? staple crops (rice, indigo, tobacco), slavery
What percentage of white Americans are farmers? 90%-95%
What was the status of the population in 1750? rapidly growing - doubling every 20 years, majority of the population is between 16-21
Who immigrated to America during this time? Scotch Irish & Germans
What were the families like during this time? large, patriarchal
What was the 18th Century Enlightenment? idea of natural laws & reason
Who was the best example of Enlightenment in the American colonies? Benjamin Franklin
What was the Great Awakening? reaction against rationalism of the Enlightenment, emphasizes emotion over reason
Who were involved in the Great Awakening? Johnathan Edwards (Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God) George Whitefield
Who were the supporters/opponents of the Great Awakening called? New/Old Lights (supporters of Calvinism)
What was the result of the Great Awakening? united the colonists, common folk challenges authority (Bacon's Rebellion, NY slave revolt)
What did America look like in 1689? Spanish, French, British
What did America look like in 1763? Spanish, British
What was the triangular trade route between Africa, New World, and Old World? to Africa: rum to New World: slaves to Old World: sugar, molasses
What was the triangular trade route between West Indies, America, and Europe? to West Indies: grain, lumber, fish to Europe: sugar, molasses to New World: goods
Which were a part of the New England colonies? Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New Hampshire
Which were a part of the Middle Colonies? Pennsylvania New York Delaware New Jersey
Which were a part of the Southern colonies? Virginia Maryland North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
What was the difference in population between the English and the French? England had a larger population and was more concentrated in one area whereas the French had lesser people and were scattered over a large area
What was the difference between the economy of the English and the French? The English were concerned with agriculture and were firmly established and largely self-sufficient whereas the French depended on Europe, were into fur trading and didn't establish permanent settlements.
What was the difference between the government of the English and the French? Each of the 13 colonies were a separate governmental unit, authority was divided between the English and the colonists, and they had trouble uniting whereas the French was centralized and the king had complete authority
How did the English and the French deal with the Indians differently? the English had poor relations with the Indians whereas the French were became friendly with them
New Mexico in 1690s, Pope led the largest Indian revolt against European domination - Spanish eventually subdued the revolt Pope's Rebellion
in his Pennsylvania Gazette, he warned his fellow colonists that they must "Join or Die" Benjamin Franklin
founded Georgia as a haven for debtors James Oglethorpe
punished by exile for advocating separation of church and state in Massachusetts Bay; founded Rhode Island Roger Williams
leader of the rebellion against Gov. Berkeley Nathaniel Bacon
English monarch when Carolinas, PA, NY, and CT were founded Charles II
rebellion was mainly supported by young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land Bacon's Rebellion
headed the Dominion of New England Edmund Andros
leader of the Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards
punished by exile for challenging the authority of leading Puritan clergymen in Massachusetts Bay Anne Hutchinson
supposedly saved Capt. John Smith's life Pocahontas
Protestant rulers of the Netherlands involved with the Glorious Revolution William and Mary
Indian chieftain, shot and beheaded for leading an uprising against whites in New England (Pequot Wars) King Philip
last of the Aztec emperors of Mexico Montezuma
owned 5 million acres in VA; one of the few landlords who lived on his property Thomas Fairfax
Pope divided Latin America between Spain and Portugal Treaty or Tordesillas
British general who rebuilt the abandoned French forts of Ticonderoga and Crown Point in the French and Indian War; captured Montreal Jeffrey Amherst
a type of primitive corporation, used to fund Jamestown joint-stock company
Congregational minister; led a group of ministers to oppose the Salem Witch Trials as convicting people on dubious evidence Cotton Mather
What is unique about Massachusetts Bay? founded by Puritans, religious freedom
What is unique about Connecticut? founded by Thomas Hooker, religious/political freedom, Fundamental Orders (basis of our gvt)
What is unique about Rhode Island? founded by Roger Williams, religious toleration, separation of church/state, place for dissenters
What is unique about Virginia? House of Burgesses
What is unique about Maryland? Catholic, religious/political freedom (except Jews & atheists)
What is unique about NC? based on tobacco
What is unique about SC? based on rice and indigo
What is unique about Georgia? haven for debtors, buffer colony
What are the three levels of Virginia's government? British Empire/Parliament colonial level local level
What did the British Parliament consist of? House of Commons (elected by landowners) House of Lords (hereditary noblemen)
What was unique about the colonial level of Virginia's government? governor (appointed by King) House of Burgesses
What was unique about the local level of Virginia's government? county court (sheriff & constable) JP's selected by governor - perform executive, legislative, judicial functions
Created by: Tiffanyy
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