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Ch. 39

The Cold War

22nd Amendment presidential term limit set at 2
post war economy faced a downturn at first, then it surged as consumers began to demand more
Strikes violent, Truman threatened to draft all strikers if they didn't stop
Taft-Hartley Act, 1947 created to control unions, leaders had to take loyalty oaths
AFL-CIO 2 major unions that merged in 1955
Harry S. Truman he made difficult decisions and took responsibility for them. "The buck stops here"
war economy much of the prosperity of the time seemed to depend on the idea of a permanent war economy
GI Bill created in 1944 to provide loans for college, homes, business, etc. for veterans
Desegregation Truman attempted civil rights legislation for blacks, congress wouldn't support him, Truman desegregated the military
Jackie Robinson 1st professional black baseball player
Economic Turn by 1948-50 the economy was growing, millions of new purchases from bonds, savings accounts
Suburbs housing shortages, leads to conformity, shopping centers were built, development in downtown areas declined
white flight majority of the people who moved to the suburbs were white
Levittowns suburb housing developments, home ownership increases, middle class forming in america and gaining power
Government policy seemed to spread de facto segregation, FHA cited risks in making loans to blacks and refused them mortgages, limiting black mobility
Beatniks expressed disillusion with middle class values
role of women after the war was back as a homemaker, yet many women were not happy with this
Betty Frieden Femine Mystique, study of the conformity and problems associated with it for women
National Highway Act Federal Interstate adn Defense HWY Act, introduced by Eisenhower and built interstates
Economic Base fewer farmers needed, more focus on energy
Sunbelt people move in large numbers to the south, new jobs, military bases, lower taxes, better weather, ect.
Baby Boom postwar baby explosion
Dr Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for polio
Dr. Benjamin Spock began writing booms on child care
United Nations maintain peace, general assembly makes up all members
Security Council permanent 5 members, one member can veto a UN idea, all must agree for major veto actions, CHINA, USSR, US, FRANCE, BRITAIN
Universal Decleration of Human Rights created by UN, list of human rights common to all people
Satellite States countries of Eastern Europe controlled by the soviet union (puppet gvts)
Containment don't let communism spread, Truman's foreign policy
Iron Curtain Winston Churchill speech, described the division of communist and non communist Europe
Cold War conflicting ideas b/w Russia and US, lasted until 1991, period of hostility short of direct military conflict
Truman Doctrine any country in Europe fighting communism would get military aid from US, Greece and Turkey accepted 1st
Marshall plan gives economic aid to European countries who would agree to trade with eachother, the soviets didnt participate because they wouldn't trade with capitalists
Germany had been divided into 4 zones, British, US, French, USSR, Berlin was a divided city
Blockade set up by Stalin to keep supplies for the allies out of Berlin
Berlin Airlift planes dropped supplies into allied areas of Berlin
Middle East Israel was created in 1948 by the UN as a homeland for Jews
National Security Act, 1947 created the joint chiefs of staff, the CIA, and National Security Council
CIA US needed to know what was going on in other countries after WW2
NATO defensive military alliance of non-communist countries
Warsaw Pact Soviets responded with their own alliance
Chiang Kai Shek leader of nationalist China
Mao Zedong led a communist revolution in China, and started a civil war, Communists won
Formosa (Taiwan) nationalist leaders went here, they represented China in the UN
Arms Race begins b/w US and USSR
Fallout Shelters protective shelters used during a nuclear attack
Duck and Cover taught as a means of protection from a nuclear blast
Loyalty Programs fear of communism, Truman, federal employees were investigated, teachers, etc.
House Un-American Committee began to heavily investigate the movie industry for communists
Hollywood Ten actors accused of being communist didn't cooperate with the investigation committee and refused to name others
Alger Hiss accused of spying for the soviets
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg accused of giving secrets of the atomic bomb to the soviets, found guilty and both were executed
McCarran Internal Security Bill, 1950 authorized the president to arrest and detain suspicious people during an internal security emergency
Joseph McCarthy began a red scare in the 1950s, "are you now or have you ever been a member of the communist party?"
McCarthyism technique of never explaining a charge or having evidence and making more accusations when questioned
1948 Election Truman was being blamed for the problems in the US
Dixiecrats southern democrats who didn't support Truman b/c of his stand on civil rights
Polls wrong, Truman won the election
Fair Deal extension of the New Deal, Truman's platform
NSC-68 said US should quadruple their defense spending
Korea divided b/w communist north and noncommunist south after WW2, Called a police action when the UN sent troops
Limited War no weapons used (Nuclear Weapons)
SEATO created to halt the expansion of communism in southeast Asia
Created by: TopsailAPUS