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Bio 111 Exam 1

all the vocab from the first exam

QuestionAnswer
Biology the study of life
Cell smallest unit of life
Atom smallest functional unit of matter that have all properties of the element
Homeostasis property of a system that regulates the internal environment
Metabolism chemical reactions that occur inside of an organism that allow life to be sustained
Cell Respiration cells break down organic molecules (sugars) to make high energy compounds like ATP
Photosynthesis when organisms use light to make food
Autotrophs make their own food
Heterotrophs need to eat other organisms to get food
Evolution populations of organisms, over time, change from generation to generation to become better adapted to the environment
Eubacteria true bacteria
Cyanobacteria photosynthetic bacteria (blue green algae)
Archaebacteria unicellular prokaryotes who live in extreme environments
Eukaryotes more complex cells, have a true nucleus
Binomial Nomenclature 2 part scientific name in Latin, genus species
Hypothesis proposed explanation of natural phenomenon, based on observation or scientific knowledge, should make predictions that are testable
Theory broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world supported by large body of evidence
Discovery-based science collect and analyze data without preconceived notions
Controlled experiment has two groups (control and experimental) that are analyzed to see if groups are significantly different from one another
Element pure substance of one kind of atom
Electrons negatively charged, arranged in orbitals around the nucleus
Protons positively charged, in nucleus
Neutrons neutral charge, in nucleus
Atomic Mass based on number of protons and neutrons
Electronegativity ability of an atom to attract/gain electrons
Ion charged form of atom
Molecule 2 or more atoms
Compound molecule made of two or more atoms with atoms of different elements
Ionic bond bond formed between positively and negatively charged ions
Covalent bond electrons shared between atoms
Nonpolar bond electrons shared equally
Polar molecules have a partial positive or partial negative charge at one end of the molecule
Single Covalent bond one pair of electrons between atoms
Double Covalent bond two pairs of electrons between atoms
Disulfide bond single bond between 2 sulfur bonds
Hydrogen bond forms when an H atom is electrically attracted to an electronegative atom
Solute Substance dissolved in a liquid
Solvent liquid in which substance is dissolved
Solution Liquid containing dissolved substances (solutes)
Aqueous solution Solution made with water (ex. Cytoplasm of a cell)
Cohesion Water molecules are attracted to other water molecules
Adhesion Water molecules are attracted to charged surfaces
Hydrophilic molecules Dissolve in water, usually charged or polar
Hydrophobic Can’t dissolve in water, nonpolar
Amphipathic Has one polar/charged end, and one nonpolar/hydrophobic end
Acid Releases H+ when dissolving in water (below 7 on ph scale), increases # of protons
Base Adds OH- ions in water, decreases H+ concentration, (above 7 on ph scale)
Organic compounds Have Carbon and Hydrogen, have covalent bonds, made by living organism
Inorganic Metals, lots of different elements, usually ionic bonds, found in environment
Macroelements CHNOPS
Microelements Mg, K, Mn, Ca, Fe, Cu, usually cofactors
Dehydration Synthesis Connects subunits together to make a longer polymer by removing water
Hydrolysis Breaks down large polymer into subunits by adding water
Storage Polysaccharides Stored forms of energy in a cell
Alpha Glycosidic Bonds How storage sugars are connected (ex. Starch)
Beta Glycosidic Bonds How structural sugars are connected (ex. Chitin) Can’t break down.
Glycoproteins Proteins with sugars covalently attached to them
Peptide bonds What amino acids are connected by
Polypeptides Chain of amino acids (N terminus and C Terminus)
Van Der Waals Interactions Weak force as molecules get within a certain distance of one another, attracted to each other
Denaturation When proteins come undone due to heat or chemicals
Enzymes Proteins that perform chemical reactions
Amino -NH2
Hydroxyl -OH
Carbonyl C=O
Aldehyde C-H=O
Carboxyl -COOH
Sulfhydryl -SH
Methyl -CH3, Nonpolar
Phosphate -PO4
Sulfate -SO4
Carbs CH2O (sugars, starch)
Monosaccharide (ex. Glucose)
Disaccharides (Ex. Dextrose, connected by covalent bond called glycosidic bond)
Lipids CHO (Fats, oils)
Proteins CHONS (enzymes) Made of amino acids, have amino and carboxyl group, connected by Peptide bonds, Polypeptides
Nucleic Acids CHNOP (DNA, RNA)
Protein A Macromolecule, composed of CHNOS, made of amino acids, has peptide bonds, has folding
Enzymes Proteins, Critical to metabolism
Actin and Myosin Structural proteins
Receptor Proteins Receive Information from outside of cell
Transport Protein Allows/Restricts movement of substances in and out of cells
Hormones (Not all hormones are proteins) Chemical messenger that acts on distant target cells, ex. Insulin
Nucleic Acids A Macromolecule, what DNA and RNA are made of, made of nucleotides
Nucleotides Units of nucleic acids, include a sugar, a phosphate, and nitrogenous bases, attached by phosphodiester bonds
Phosphodiester Bonds Type of covalent bonds that attach nucleotides
RNA Ribonucleic acid, Single Stranded, (3 Types)
MRNA Type of RNA, codes for proteins
TRNA Type of RNA, brings amino acids to ribosome during protein synthesis
RRNA Structural part of ribosome
Ribosome Made of RRNA and protein
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, Double stranded, Anti-parallel strands, Contains genes/genetic blueprint
Genes Code for proteins
Purines Bases with 2 rings: Adenine and guanine, Larger
Pyrimidines Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil, Smaller
Lipid A Macromolecule, Large and Hydrophobic, made of CHO (ex. Fats, oils, fatty acids, triglycerides)
Triglycerides Fats and oils, store energy, Glycerol plus 3 fatty acid molecules
Glycerol 3 Hydrophilic Hydroxyl groups
Fatty Acids Carboxyl group and long hydrocarbon chain
Hydrophobic Effect Hydrophobic attract to other hydrophobic, hydrophilic attract to other hydrophilic
Saturated Fats Solid at room temperature, Single bonds, easy to “pack in”
Unsaturated Fats Liquid at room temperature (At least one double or triple bond), adds kink in molecule
Phospholipids Component of membrane that has glycerol, two fatty acids, phosphate group, polar head group
Steroids Type of lipid, 4 rings and side chain, component of membranes, hormones
Cell Smallest unit of life
Prokaryotic Cell Non membrane-bound nucleus
Eukaryotic Cell Have true nucleus
Plasma Membrane Separates living environment from non-living environment
Nucleoid Region Where DNA is in Prokaryotes
Fission Asexual Reproduction, little to no sexual recombination
Membrane Phospholipid Bilayer, Allows things in and out of cell
Nucleus “Brain” of cell, has DNA in Chromatin in Eukaryotes, Double membrane, nuclear pores, nucleolus
Mitochondrion (Power house of the cell), has DNA, ribosomes, responsible for cell respiration
Christae Folded inner membrane site of Electron Transport Chain
Chloroplasts Like a solar generator for plants
Thylakoid Green photosynthetic membrane, where Light Reactions take place
Stroma Liquid part, responsible for Calvin Cycle, has DNA, ribosomes
Grana Stacks of Thylakoids
Endosymbiosis Theory Mitochondrion and Chloroplasts are all derived from small bacteria that were engulfed by larger bacteria during evolution of Eukaryotic cells
Vacuole Storage and breakdown of substances, responsible for turgor pressure in plants
Peroxisomes Break down peroxide
Lysosome Use acid hydrolases to break down macromolecules (like stomach of the cell)
Ribosomes Large subunit and small subunit, half RNA, half protein, responsible for protein synthesis
Rough ER membrane sheets with ribosomes on surface, performs protein synthesis and glycosylation
Glycosylation Adds sugars to proteins
Smooth ER Tubular membrane sheets, place of lipid and membrane synthesis, Calcium storage, Detoxifixation and metabolism
Golgi Apparatus Packaging center of the cell, where proteins are modified, sorted, and packed into vesicles to be sent to final locations
Cytoskeleton Network of molecules in cell made of actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules, gives structure to cells, is involved in intracellular transport and cell movement
Actin Usually found beneath plasma membrane, gives shape to cells, involved in cell movement
Intermediate Filaments Very strong, form scaffolding of cell
Microtubules Hollow tubes made of tubulin proteins, make up spindle fibers, involved in intracellular movement, make up flagellum
Cilia Made of microtubules, used to move a cell through liquid
Flagella Made of microtubules, used to move cell through liquid, tail-like projection (ex. Sperm)
Phospholipid Bilayer Outer layer of a cell, semi permeable, Has Cholesterol and Proteins embedded in it.
Integral Membrane Proteins Embedded in the membrane (“strawberries” in jello)
Peripheral Membrane Protein On top of the membrane (“marshmallows” in jello)
Cholesterol Gives mechanical strength to the membrane, maintains fluidity, is in the membrane with OH group sticking out
Selectively permeable Only certain molecules can pass through membrane
Diffusion When a solute moves from higher to lower concentration, down the concentration gradient, no energy input
Osmosis When water moves from high concentration to low concentration of water, no energy input needed
Concentration Amount of solute dissolved in a certain volume
Passive Transport When solute moves down concentration gradient, from high to low, no energy input needed
Active Transport When solute moves from low to high concentration of solute, solute moves against concentration gradient, transport protein required for movement of solute, Uses energy (can use ATP, light, ion gradient)
Direct Active Transport Primary Active Transport (Low to High), Uses ATP, GTP, NADH, light
Indirect Active Transport Secondary Active Transport, 2 part system
Exocytosis Moves substances outside cell
Endocytosis Moves substances inside of cell
Created by: smkenned