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lecture 33 greenberg

most important piece of hx for dx of fungal infections pt's exposure to specific habitats
fungal cell walls beta-1,3-glucans and chitin NOT PG like bacteria
all capsules are antiphagocytic, virulence factor Cryptococcus neoformans
echinocandin target beta-1,3-glucan, inhibit glucan synthesis
primary sterol in fungal cell walls ergosterol, synthesis of it is interrupted by amphotericin B and azoles
dimorphic pathogens alternate btwn yeast (in mammalian hosts) and mold forms (in soil), CAUSE OF ENDEMIC MYCOSES
pseudohyphae typical of Candida, blastoconidia of yeast continue to grow into elongated sausage-like filaments
arthrospores arthroconidia, conversion of preexisting entire hyphal element into smaller conidia that break loose and disseminate to cause dz (Cryptococcus)
macroconidia/microconidia small and large conidial forms, typical of tineal infections
sporotrichosis from rose thorn prick, gardener
characteristic endemic mycoses are typical of specific geographic regions
histoplasmosis geographic region Mississippi-Ohio River valley region, midwest US including North Texas
common mycological agar Saboroud dextrose to inhbit growth of various bacteria
difference btwn bacteria and fungal ribosomes bacteria: 30 and 50S = 70S fungi: 80S = 40S + 60S
examples of systemic mycoses Coccidiodes, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Penicillium
blastoconidia another name for the yeast cell; ex. Candida albicans
risk factors for opportunistic mycoses like Cryptococcus and Pneumocystis DM, lymphoma, HIV/AIDS, broad-spetrum abx, immunosuppressive tx, HOST GENE DEFECTS
superficial and cutaneous mycoses tinea versicolor, tinea capitis, tinea pedis, etc.
subcutaneous mycoses introduced through trauma to feet or legs, sometimes hands; ex. = sporotrichosis
most important factors that can dictate pathogenicity of fungal infections size of inoculum, whether or not there is a sufficient # of functional neutrophils/alveolar macrophages, ability of the fungus to go from mold form to yeast in human
organisms that stain with GS for whatever reason Candida and Cryptococcus, don't confuse them with bacteria
Created by: sirprakes