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History Chapter 25

The Great Depression and the New Deal

Dust Bowl The dust storms began in 1934. Boiling clouds of dust filled the skies in parts of Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico. At least a third of farms in the Dust Bowl were abandoned in the 1930s, and many families made the trek to California
Hoovervilles Families, unable to pay rent, were evicted from houses and apartments. The new homeless poured into shantytowns, called “Hoovervilles,” in ironic tribute to the formerly popular president, that had sprung up in most cities
Federal Farm Board The Federal Farm Board, created under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929, supported crop prices by lending money to cooperatives to buy crops and keep them off the market. But the board soon ran short of money, and unsold surpluses jammed warehouses.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Hoover also singed into law this Tariff in 1930, which was meant to support American farmers and manufacturers by raising import duties on foreign goods to a staggering 40 percent. Instead it hampered international trade as other nations created their own
Reconstruction Finance Corporation The RFC provided federal loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, an action Hoover hoped would shore up those industries and halt the disinvestment in the American economy. With the RFC, Hoover had compromised his ideological principles. This w
Farmers' Holiday Association In August 1932, this new group encouraged farmers to take a “holiday”—to hold back agricultural products as a way to limit supply and drive prices up. Social unrest spread, and protest grew
Bonus Army More than fifteen thousand unemployed World War I veterans and their families converged on the nation’s capital as Congress debated a bill authorizing immediate payment of cash “bonuses” that veterans had been scheduled to receive in 1945. MacArthur, Eise
Twentieth Amendment The Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution—the so-called Lame Duck Amendment, ratified in 1933—shifted all future inaugurations to January 20. In this long interregnum, the American banking system reached the verge of collapse
Emergency Banking Relief Bill This bill provided federal authority to reopen solvent banks and reorganize the rest. It also authorized federal money to shore up private banks. This showed Roosevelt’s banking policy was much like Hoover’s—a fundamentally conservative approach status qu
Roosevelt's Fireside Chats . In the first of his radio “Fireside Chats,” he used clear, simple language to explain his actions and ask for support
The First Hundred Days During the ninety-nine day-long special session of Congress, dubbed by journalists “The First Hundred Days,” the federal government took on dramatically new roles.The new administration produced a flood of legislation. The first priority was economic reco
Brain Trust Roosevelt, aided by a group of advisers—lawyers, university professors, and social workers, who were collectively nicknamed “the Brain Trust”—and by the enormously capable First Lady, set out to revive the American economy
National Industrial Recovery Act Skirting antitrust regulation, the NIRA authorized competing businesses to cooperate in crafting industrywide “codes.” Competition among these manufacturers would no loner drive down prices and wages. According to this logic, with wages and prices stabili
National Recovery Administration Individual businesses’ participation in this program, administered by the NRA, was voluntary—with one catch. Businesses the adhered to the industrywide “codes” could display the “Blue Eagle,” the NRA symbol; the government urged consumers to boycott busin
Agricultural Adjustment Act Establishing a national system of crop controls, the AAA offered subsidies to farmers who agreed to limited production of specific crops. In 1933, to reduce production already under way, the nation’s farmers agreed to destroy 8. million piglets and to plo
Civilian Conservation Corps The CCC paid unmarried young men (young women were not eligible) $1 a day to do hard outdoor labor: building dams and reservoirs, creating trails in national parks. The program was segregated by race but brought together young men from very different back
Public Works Administration appropriated $3.3 billion for public works in 1933. PWA workers built the Grand Coulee Dam (begun during Hoover’s administration) and the Triborough Bridge in New York City, as well as hundred of public buildings. Purpose-Pump Federal money into economy
American Liberty League In 1934 the leaders of several major corporations joined with former presidential candidate Al Smith and disaffected conservative Democrats to establish the American Liberty League. This group mounted a highly visible campaign against New Deal “radicalism
Black Cabinet By 1936 at least fifty African Americans held relatively important positions in New Deal agencies and cabinet-level departments. Journalists called these officials—who met on Friday evenings at the home of Mary McLeod Bethune, a distinguished educator who
Second New Deal Roosevelt introduced a range of progressive programs aimed at providing, as he said in a 1935 address to Congress, “greater security for the average man.” The first triumph of the Second New Deal was an innocuous-sounding but momentous law that Roosevelt
Emergency Relief Appropriation Act This act provided $4 billion in new deficit spending, primarily to establish massive public works programs for the jobless. Among the programs funded by this act were the Resettlement Administration, which resettled destitute families and organized rural
Works Progress Administration The WPA ultimately employed more than 8.5 million people. Many WPA projects helped local communities. The WPA’s Federal Theater Project its Arts Project hired painters The Federal Music Project employed 15,000 musicians WPA’s Federal Writers Project (FWP)
Social Security Act a federal system to provide for the social welfare of American citizens. Its key provision was a federal pension system in which eligible workers paid mandatory Social Security taxes on their wages and their employers contributed an equivalent amount; the
Wealth Tax Act helped achieve a slight redistribution of income by raising the income axes of the wealthy. It also imposed a new tax on business profits and increased taxes on inheritances, large gifts, and profits from the sale of property.
New Deal Coalition new alliance consisted of the urban masses—especially immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and their sons and daughters—organized labor, the eleven states of the Confederacy (the “Solid South”), and northern blacks. With the New Deal coalition, the
National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act guaranteed workers the right to organize unions and to bargain collectively. It outlawed “unfair labor practices” such as firing workers who joined unions, prohibiting management from sponsoring company unions, and required employers to bargain with labor
Congress of Industrial Organizations He and other industrial unionists created the Committee of Industrial Organizations., the CIO included women and people of color in its membership. Union membership gave these “marginal” workers greater employment security and the benefits of collective b
United Auto Workers' Strike of 1936 ), an industrial union, demanded recognition from General Motors (GM), Chrysler, and Ford. When GM refused, UAW organizers responded with a relatively new tactic: a “sit-down strike.” On December 30, 1936, workers at the Fisher Body plant in Flint, Michig
Bureau of Reclamation an obscure agency created in 1902 to provide irrigation for small farms and ranches, expanded its mandate dramatically to build large multipurpose dams that controlled entire river systems. The Boulder Dam (later renamed the Hoover Dam) harnessed the Colo
Taylor Grazing Act imposed new restrictions on ranchers’ use of public lands for grazing stock. Federal stock reduction programs saved the western cattle industry, but they destroyed the traditional economy of the Navajos by forcing them to reduce the size of their sheep he
Indian Reorganization Act This act (1934) went a long way toward ending the forced assimilation of native peoples and restoring Indian land to tribal ownership. It also gave federal recognition to tribal governments. Indian tribes had regained their status as semisovereign nations
Tennessee Valley Authority created to develop a water and hydroelectric power project similar to the multipurpose dams of the West; dam would not only control flooding but produce electric power for the region. Through the TVA, the federal government promoted economic development,
Roosevelt's Court-Packing Plan Roosevelt set out to safeguard his progressive agenda, specifically in the Supreme Court. He asked Congress for authority to appoint up to six new justices to the Supreme Court, but many saw this as an attack on constitutional government. He wanted to be
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp In short order the Court upheld the Wagner Act in this court case, ruling that Congress’s power to regulate interstate commerce also involved the power to regulate the production of goods for interstate commerce.
Marvin Montgomery A farmer during the Dust Bowl who moved with his wife and four children to California. The Montgomerys’ trip was not easy. The family ran out of money and worked in the cotton fields for five weeks before they moved on. They got space in housing provided
Herbert Hoover Formerly popular president and “the Great Engineer” who had a reputation as a problem solver. He didn’t know what to do, however, about the depression. He believed these crises were inevitable, and he had great faith in “associationalism”: business organi
FDR A Democrat who insisted that the federal government had to play a much greater role in the nation. He supported direct relief payments for the unemployed and pledged “a new deal for the American people.” He had committed to use the power of the federal go
Father Charles Coughlin A Roman Catholic priest whose weekly radio sermons reached up to 30 million listeners, appealed to the fears and frustrations of people who felt they’d lost control of their lives to distant elites and impersonal forces. Increasingly anti-New Deal, he als
Dr. Francis E Townsend He proposed that Americans over the age of sixty should receive a government pension of $200 a month, financed by a new “transaction” (sales) tax. In fact, his plan was fiscally impossible and profoundly regressive (because sales tax rates are the same fo
Huey Long He was elected governor of Louisiana in 1928. As a US senator, he at first supported the New Deal, but he began to believe that Roosevelt had fallen captive to big business. He countered in 1934 with the Share Our Wealth Society, which advocated the seizu
John L Lewis John L. Lewis, head of the United Mine Workers and the nation’s most prominent labor leader, resigned as vice president of the AFL. He and other industrial unionists created the Committee of Industrial Organizations. The AFL responded by suspending all CI
John Collier John Collier, founder of the American Indian Defense Agency, meant to completely reverse the course of America’s Indian policy, and his initiatives had many positive results. The Indian Reorganization Act (1934) went a long way toward ending the forced as
Marian Anderson When this acclaimed black contralto was bared from performing in Washington’s Constitution Hall by its owners, the Daughters of the American Revolution, Eleanor Roosevelt arranged for Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday, 1939. Such p
A. Philip Randolph The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was under the astute leadership of A. Philip Randolph, and it fought for the rights of black workers. Such actions, along with the limited benefits of New Deal programs, helped to improve the lives of black American
Goals of the New Deal Body paragraph I. Experimenting with forms of national economic planning. Body Paragraph II. Relief Programs
Critics of the New Deal Business Opposition, Demagogues and Populists, Left-Wing Critics
Created by: xoxtraceyxox
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