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Greece/ Monophony

Ancient Greece and Rome/ Early Monophony

Boethius Was the most revered authority on music in the Middle Ages. Wrote on philosophy, logic, theology, and mathematical arts. Divided music into music of the universe, human music, and instrumental music. Music was an object of knowledge.
Doctrine on the Nature of Music Music was inseparable from numbers and was a system of pitches and rhythm ruled by math. law and operated in in/visible world. Harmony of the cosmos (Plato and Ptolemy)
Doctrine of Ethos Invented idea of 3 types of music. Music has moral qualities and affects character and behavior. Human soul was composite kept in harmony by numerical relationships. (Plato/Aristotle=good citizens should be educated in proper music)
Greater Perfect System A compilation of four tetrachords with an additional bottom A (proslambanomenos). Conjunct tetrachords, followed by a disjunct tetrachords, and followed by conjunct tetrachords.
Plato Greek philosopher that related music as "harmony of the spheres" (revolution of the planets). Argued education should stress gymnastics (body) and music (mind). Music could distort one's character.
Aristotle Greek philosopher that believed music that imitated a certain ethos aroused that ethos in the listener through harmonia. Music could be used for enjoyment as well as education.
Pythagorean Tuning The octave, fourth, and fifth intervals were related to numbers and ratios.
Tetrachord Comprised of four notes spanning a perfect fourth. The three types are diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic.
Tonoi A tonos (singular) was a scale or set of pitches within a specific range or region of voice. Melodic types tied to geographical regions (dorian, phrygian, etc)
Augustine Founder of theology. Believed the power of music should be separated from the power from heathen pleasure.
Ambrose Bishop from Milan responsible for Christian Liturgy. Many chants similar to those of Rome.
Antiphon (antiphonal) A chant sung before and after a psalm in an Office Liturgy.
Church modes 8 modes differentiated by arrangement of whole and half steps in relation to the final. Each chant was assigned to a specific mode.
St. Jerome "A Church Father" who interpreted the Bible and set down principles to guide the church.
Liturgy The body of texts and ritual actions assigned to a church service. Word Liturgy included bible readings and psalms. Eucharist Liturgy included offering, prayers, and communion.
Monophony (monophonic) Music consisting of a single melodic line (Greek Music). Doesn't have to be performed that way.
Plagal vs. Authentic Authentic mode (odd # mode) covers a range from a step below the final to an octave above it. A plagal mode (even # mode) has the same final but moves to a fourth below the final and a sixth above the final.
Psalms Psalms are poems of praise from the Hebrew Book of Psalms.
Range, Final, Reciting Tone Range=space of notes in a mode. Final= the last note of a chant (D,E,F, or G). Reciting tone characterized a mode. In authentic modes, the reciting tone was a fifth above a final, in plagal it was a third below reciting tone of authentic mode.
Responsary (responsorial) Musical responses after readings with a soloist followed by the choir.
Rules of St. Benedict The set of instructions on running a monastery. Outlined the litergy of the Office (530).
Syllabic, Neumatic, Melismatic Styles Syllabic chants where every syllable has a single note. Neumatic chants have syllables that can span 1-6 notes. Melismatic chants have long melodic passages on a single syllable.
Vulgate The original Bible in Latin.
Mass Common, Mass Proper Proper mass have varying texts and are called by their function. Ordinary Mass do not change texts and are called by their initial words.
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo Ordinary mass. Kyrie=Lord, Christ, Lord mercy (symbolize trinity). Gloria=formula of praise to God and mercy. Credo=statement of faith/church doctrine.
Sanctus, Agnus Dei Ordinary mass. Sanctus=angelic chorus of praise after offertory and the secret. Agnus Dei= Lamb of God before communion after lord's prayer.
Psalm Tones Formulas for singing psalms in the Office. One psalm tone is used for the 8 modes. Mode of psalm tone dependent on mode of antiphon.
Intonation, tenor, mediant, termination (psalm tones) Intonation=a rising motive only used for the first verse. Tenor=Recitation of the reciting tone. Mediant=a cadence for the middle of each verse. Termination= final cadence for each verse.
Epitaph of Seikilos Noted on stone in the 1st Century A.D. Be cheerful, life is too short. Complex for that time, similar to Greek theoretical writings on melody.
Euripides' Orestes From Greek tragedy written on papyrus. Chorus sang ode in rhythmic pattern which intones grief. Notated rhythm corresponds to Greek poetry. Notes missing=some interpretation.
Created by: jgk25