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Devpmental disorders

Embryology essay

QuestionAnswer
Spina bifida occulta - defect of the posterior arch of the vertebra in which a developing pedical segment fails to fuse and form a spinous process. Usually occurs in the lumbosacral area. Usually only clinically discovered when patient presents with back pain.
Spina bifida vera - wide bony defect of posterior arch, usually more than one vertebrae. The thecal sac and contents protrude beyond the confines of the spinal canal. Some evidence suggests that consuming adequate folic acid may prevent this. There are several variations.
Tethered cord - results from a thick, short filum terminale, leads to weakness and sensory deficits in the lower extremity and a neurogenic bladder. Deficits usually improve after transection.
Arnold-Chiari malformation - cerebellomedullary malformation in which caudal vermis, cerebellar tonsils, and medulla herniate through the foramen magnum, resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus.
Clinical sx of Arnold-Chiari malformation? Affected children may have dysphonia, laryngeal stridor, and respiratory arrest (CN X involved.)
Dandy-Walker Syndrome - huge cyst of the posterior fossa, association with 4th ventricle dilation, agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, occipital meningocele, and frequently agensis of the splenium of the corupus callosum.
Fetal alcohol syndrome - includes growth retardation, microcephaly, and congenital heart anomalies, is most common cause of mild mental retardation.
Created by: jasonsmithdc