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DAT ch 7

bio- neuroscience from coursesaver notes

Neuron consists of several dendrites, single axon and cell body
Dendrites receive information and transfer it TO CELL body
Axon transfers impulses AWAY from cell body
Glial Cells produce myelin · Oligodendrocytes – produce myelin in CNS · Schwann – produce myelin in PNS
At rest neuron is polarized (-70 mV)
Concentration of K+ higher ____cell // Na+ higher ____cell inside, outside
Threshold level at which action potential is initiated (-50 mV)
Depolarization voltage-gated Na+ channels open allowing Na+ to rush in
Repolarization voltage-gated K+ channels open so K+ rush out; more negative potential; K+ channels are slow and stay open longer; once cell is repolarized, K+ leak channels open
Greater diameter & more heavily myelinated axons will propagate faster impulses
After Synaptic vesicles fuse w/ presynaptic membrane neurotransmitter fuses to postsynaptic membrane, Neurotransmitter may be taken back into nerve terminal, degraded by enzymes in synapse, or diffuse out of the synapse
Acetylcholine primary neurotransmitter of parasympathetic NS; excitatory and inhibitory on muscles and glands
Norepinephrine primary neurotransmitter of sympathetic NS
Afferent Neurons carry SENSORY info about enviro TO brain (from A to B / Aff => brain)
Efferent Neurons MOTOR commands from BRAIN to BODY
CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord
Brain grey matter (cell bodies) and inner white matter (axons); forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
Forebrain contains cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, thalamus ,hypothalamus
cerebral cortex processes sensory input / imp for memory and creative thought
thalamus relax for cerebral cortex / spinal cord)
hypothalamus water balance, blood pressure, and temp regulation
Midbrain visual/ auditory impulses; motor control
Hindbrain posterior part of brain; cerebellum , pons , medulla
cerebellum maintenance of balance, hand-eye coord, timing of rapid movements
pons relay center to allow communication b/w cortex and cerebellum
Medulla breathing, heart rate, gastrointestinal activity)
PNS somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Somatic responsible for VOLUNTARY movement
Autonomic involuntary movement; innervates cardiac and smooth muscle
Sympathetic fight or flight (higher BP and HR)
Parasympathetic rest and digest (lower HR / increased gut motility)
cornea focuses light
pupil diameter controlled by iris (pigmented)
lens controlled by cilliary muscles
Myopia nearsightedness
Ear outer, middle and inner ear; transduces sound energy into impulses
Outer ear auricle and auditory canal
Middle ear amplifies sound; tympanic membrane (eardrum) vibrates at same frequency as incoming sound => ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes)
Inner Ear vestibular apparatus (equilibrium) and cochlea (vibration of ossicles ecert pressure on fluid stimulating hair cells in basilar membrane => action potential)
Created by: xeenie
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