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DAT ch 3

bio- genetics from coursesaver notes

TRUE/FALSE Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs true
Dihybrid Cross punnet square for TTPP and TtPp the four on top would be (TP TP TP TP) and on the side would be (TP Tp tP tp)
Incomplete Dominance progeny phenotypes that are blends of parental phenotypes. Classic example is color in snapdragons (dominant red crossed with recessive white produce PINK)
Codominance multiple dominant alleles; ex BLOOD ( o = ii, A = IAIA or IAi, AB = IAIB)
Sex-Linked Recessive gene carried on X chromosome; ex hemophilia & color blindness
epistasis occurs when one gene masks or modifies the expression of an other gene
Pleiotrophy – single gene effects several phenotypic characteristics
Mutations in somatic cells => tumors, in gametes => transmitted to offspring; insertion, deletion, substitution; ex sickle-cell anemia
Pyrimidines CUT the PY; 1 ring *Because G is triple bonded to C, higher G/C content more stable *Nucleotides are H-bonded
Redundancy/ Degeneracy genetic code synonyms, multiple codons for same AA
nucleoside sugar+base
Protein Synthesis Replication => Transcription => Translation. DNA synthesis occurs during S-phase.
Ribosomes are assembled by the nucleolus.
Replication  of DNA => DNA synthesized in 5’=>3’;
Helicase, primase helicase unwinds double helix and an RNA polymerase called, primase begins replication
Transcription DNA => RNA (nucleus), mRNA has inverted complementary code, ex 5’ TCTTT 3’ mRNA would be 3’ AGAAA 5’ **principal site of the regulation of gene expression
Translation RNA => Protein (cytoplasm); mRNA translated to AA
exons nucleotide base sequences that are transcribed into mRNA proteins
Introns are removed during transcription; (exons = don’t exit)
mRNA carries complement of DNA from nucleus to ribosomes, least abundant RNA
tRNA brings AA to ribosomes during synthesis, recognizes AA and codons; in cytoplasm; smallest form of RNA
rRNA ribosomal RNA; most abundant form of RNA
Ribosomes two subunits; three binding sites: 1 for mRNA, 3 for tRNA
PCR technique makes multiple DNA copies in vitro
X-Ray diffraction most accurate way to discover molecular structures.
Polypeptide sequence initiation (AUG), elongation, termination (UGA UAG UAA)
Gene Regulation transcription enables prokaryotes to control metabolism
Inducible system require inducer for transcription
RNA polymerase binds to promoter structural genes transcribed
Repressor binds to operator structural genes NOT transcribed
Inducer binds to repressor no binding to operator => genes transcribed
Repressible system constant state of transcription unless corepressor- repressor complex present to inhibit
Bacteriophage virus that infects host bacterium; attachment/ adsorption => penetration/ eclipse=> lytic or lysogenic
Lytic virus phage DNA takes control of bacterium/ makes numerous progeny; bacterial cell bursts (lyses) releasing virons; these types of bacteriophage are called virulent; ALL HOST cells destroyed = evolutionary disadvantage
Lysogenic virus becomes integrated into genome in harmless way (provirus/prophage); cleverness is that every time the host reproduces itself the prophage is reproduced too
Techoic acids used for recognition and binding sites by bacterial viruses that cause infections
Created by: xeenie


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