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DAT ch 1

bio- basis of life from coursesaver notes

Ingestion acquisition of food
Assimilation building of new tissues from digested food
Monosaccharide (carb) single sugar subunit
Polysaccharide carb) polymer, insoluble in water; ex: glycogen / cellulose Lipids
Proteins polymers of AA joined by peptide bond / 1* = AA sequence, 2* = folding (alpha beta) · Hormones (ACTH & insulin), Enzymes, structural pro (collagen), transport (hemoglobin), antibodieS
Enzymes lower activation E & inc. rate of rxn / do not affect overall E · Higher temp = inc enzyme action / optimal pH = 7.2 (except pepsin & pancreas)
Competitive inhibitors compete w/ substrate for binding at ACTIVE site; can be overcome by adding more substrate; Vmax not affected
Noncompetitive inhibitors bind at allosteric site; diminishes Vmax
Prokaryotes bacteria, cell wall, NO nucleus, NO memb-bound organelles, ribosomes (no mem), mesosomes (invaginations of membrane)
Eukaryotes cell wall in fungi & plants, nucleus, membrane-bound organelles
Centrioles microtubule involved in spindle organization during cell division/ NO membrane
Centromere near middle of eukaryotic chromosomes where spindle fibers attach
Lysosome membrane bound, involved in ingestion / hydrolytic enzymes
Mitochondria exhibit maternal inheritance
desmosomes “spot welds”; attach cells together and give cells mechanical strength (ex. skin cells)
Tight junctions seal the spaces b/w cells and prevent cell leakage (ex. intestinal cells)
Gap junctions allow cells to exchange nutrients and for molecular communication
Endosymbiotic Theory mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as independent unicellular organisms living in symbiosis with larger cells
Fluid Mosaic lipids and proteins are free to move back and forth fluidly; diffuse laterally ‑Integral Membrane are embedded in membrane by hydrophobic interactions ‑Peripheral are stuck to integral membrane proteins by H bonding
Cell surface Receptors type of integral membrane protein; three types: ligand-gated (open ion channel), catalytic, and G-protein
G-Protein use secondary messengers such as cAMP which amplify signal
Created by: xeenie


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