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GramNegBacteria

lecture 6 greenberg

QuestionAnswer
dysentery diarrhea with blood and/or pus, usually accompanied by fever
enterotoxin toxin secreted into intestinal lumen that causes secretion of fluid into it
septicemia fever syndrome characterized by bacteria in bloodstream
zoonosis infectious dz that primarily affects animals but where humans can be accidental hosts
accounts for > 90% of all UTIs especially in young women E. coli
type 1 pilin and P fimbriae specific to E. coli and allow it to attach well to urothelium
capsular antigen found on strains of E. coli causing neonatal meningitis K1 antigen (capsular)
E. coli heat-labile toxin is associated with what dz? traveler's diarrhea through plasmid, much like cholera mechanism
E. coli heat-stable toxin activates what intracellular enzyme? guanylate cyclase, also fluid secretions causing diarrhea
EHEC toxin aka ______, why? Shiga-like toxin, causes bloody diarrhea like Shigella
most famous strain of EHEC O157:H7
Shiga toxin is ____lytic cytolytic, destroyed intestinal epithelium leaks fluid and blood into stool
four most common Shigella species that cause dysentery in humans sonnei, flexneri, boydii and dysenteriae
most common clinical manifestations of Salmonella enterica infection enterocolitis, bacteremia with focal lesions and enteric fever
Salmonella enterica is classified into its subgroups using what? O-antigen serotyping -- groups A-D most affect humans
Name the two Yersinia species that can mimic appendicitis enterocolitica and pseudotuberculosis
Yersinia and Salmonella both tend to reside and replicate within _______ macrophages preferentially; they are intracellular pathogens
cause of the bubonic plague Yersinia pestis
carrier for bubonic plague rat flea carries from rat to rat then bites humans to infect them (zoonotic)
striking physical exam finding of pt with bubonic plague massive lymph node enlargement, possibly near point of rupture
tell-tale method of identifying Yersinia just with Gram-staining and microscope safety pin appearance, bipolar staining on Gram stain
2 definitive tests for identifying Salmonella in lab presence of hydrogen sulfide, oxidase negative
causative agent/mechanism of cholera Vibrio cholerae A/B toxin, causes buildup of cAMP, Gs can't turn off --> massive diarrhea
Vibrio species that cause gastroenteritis syndrome vulnificus and parahaemolyticus
individuals who eat _______ are at higher risk for Vibrio gastroenteritis raw shellfish
natural habitat for Vibrio species salt water
natural habitat for Aeromonas fresh water
distinguishing feature of Aeromonas compared to other fermentative bacteria oxidase +
organism that grows preferentially at 42 deg Celsius (in bird GI tracts) Campylobacter spp
most important causative bacteria of bloody diarrhea in the US Campylobacter jejuni
most common cause of CAP in the immunocompromised (CF, HIV/AIDS) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas' ability to live in tap water makes it successful at causing which infections? swimmer's ear (otitis externa) cutaneous rash illness from being in hot tubs
cause of wound infections in soldiers in Iraq Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (baumanii)
multiple drug-resistant oxidase positive GN coccobacillus that causes nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated pts Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (baumanii)
Moraxella catarrhalis is resistant largely to _______ PCN
factors absolutely required for Haemophilus growth on agar plates increased CO2, heme and NAD
Haemophilus ducreyi is an STD that causes chancroids on genitalia
3 toxins produced by Bordetella pertussis pertussis toxin, adenylyl cyclase, tracheal cytotoxin
2 species in Bordetella that cause whooping cough-like syndromes B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica
Brucella reaches humans how? ingestion of food like unpasteurized cheese, zoonosis
most common causative organism of meningitis in young adults or anyone in close quarters Neisseria meningitidis
2 common virulence factors of Neisseria gonorrhoae pillin, lipooligosaccharide
areas where anaerobes predominate GI tract, mouth, skin, sweat glands, hair follicles
Neisseria gonorrhoae ferments ______ for energy glucose only
Neisseria meningitidis ferments ______ for energy maltose and glucose
Created by: sirprakes
 

 



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