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Name the water compartments in the body, their subcompartments, and % body weight *Water is 60% of body weight* Intracellular fluid (ICF) -40% of water weight -single compartment Extracellular fluid (ECF) -20% of water weight -Plasma (5%) -Interstitial (15%)
Cations, Anions, and Proteins in ICF and ECF -electrolytes (Na,K,Cl,proteins) -glucose and urea -ICF main cation K, main anion phosphate and proteins -ECF main cation Na, main anion Cl and HCO3 -plasma has more protein
Functions of Biological Membranes -normal cell composition -form important scaffolds (for attachment of enzymes) -receptor of external signals
Components of Biological Membranes -lipid bilayer w/ various proteins -integral membrane proteins (directly in bilayer) -peripheral membrane proteins, inner or outer surface -carbohydrates
Composition of protein and lipid -generally = -inner mitochondrian membrane=70% protein -schwann cell membranes=20% protein
Carbohydrates are covalently linked to membrane proteins or lipids where? -Outter surface of plasma membrane -luminal surface of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes
Structure of Glycerophospholipid (phosphoglyceride) -polar head group -phosphate -glycerol (O)CH2(O)CH(O)CH2 -Hydrophobic tail (long CH chain)
Properties of membrane spanning portion of an integral membrane protein -1+ hydrophobic regions pass through bilayer -forms a helix -R groups protrude in radial manner -C=O and H-N shield from lipid bilayer
4 ways peripheral membrane proteins attach to bilayer -+ charged residues form electrostatic interactions with - charged membrane lipids -hydrophobic tail inserted into bilayer -covalently linked to phosphatidylinositol -bound to integral membrane proteins
Channel vs. Pore -tunnels through bilayer allow passing of ions or molecules by diffusion -most gated and controled by ligands or voltage changes -pore=nonspecific except for size -channel=ion specific
Gap Junctions vs. Nicotinic-acetylcholine receptor -gap=pores allow movement between two adjacent cells, permitting metabolic coordination -NA rec.=ligand gated Na channel binds AcCo from neuron causing conformational change
Defective ion channels in mayathenia gravis and cystic fibrosis -autoimmune disease producing antibodies to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, interfere or destrow receptor at neuromuscular junction -mutations affecting Cl channel allowing accumulation of thick mucous secretions in lungs
Facilitated diffusion vs. passive diffusion -facilitated diffusion requires specific transport proteins that move in direction of concentration gradient -more rapid than passive diffusion and displays saturation kinetics
GLUT protein family -carries out glucose transport into RBC's -affinity for glucose is much higher than for other sugars
Active transport -moves substances against concentration gradient and requires energy -energy via ATP
Secondary Active Transport -requires electrochemical or ion gradients -ATP required to maintain ion gradient
Symport vs. Antiport -Symport=substance moves into cell with Na -Antiport=substance moves out as Na moves in
Na/K ATPase and its function what is a drug that inhibits it? -P type pump requiring phosphorylation of pump protein -E1 (high affinity for Na)<>E2 (high affinity for K) -transition triggered by phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of protein -digitalis (cardiotonic steroid)
a-neurotoxins -paralize by blocking action of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor -tubocurarine, a-cobratoxin
Cholesterol and membrane structure -can increase and decrease fluidity -at body temp, immobilizes fatty acul chains limiting fluidity -at reduced temp, prevents tight packing of fatty acyl tails maintaining fluidity
Integral membrane protein inserted directly into bilayer along with various proteins
Peripheral membrane proteins associated with inner or outter surface of membrane
Created by: MastamikeOD