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Acids, Bases,Buffer

Medical Biochemistry

4 Common Causes of Respiratory Acidosis Asthma Bronchitis Obesity Sedatives/ Anesthetics
Buffers and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation -Resists changes in pH -Weak acid + Conjugate base; Most effective in pH range closely surrounding pKa of the acid; -pH= pKa+log[A]/[HA]
Lungs and Kidneys working together on pH -Lungs control carbon dioxide and can raise or lower via hypo/hyperventilation if kidneys fail or aren’t performing properly –Kidneys control Carbonate (HCO3) and can also compensate for lungs if not functioning properly, but takes longer
Effect on pH of increased [H] -pH is decreased –pH=log[H] or 1/[H]
3 common causes of respiratory alkalosis -Anxiety/Pain –High Altitude –Mechanical hyperventilation
pH > pKa pH < pKa pH = pKa -Base form predominates –Acid form predominates –[A]=[HA]; 50% acid dissociated
Buffers and the pH of blood and interior of cell Blood=CO2/Bicarbonate (pH:7.35-7.45) – CO2 g <> CO2 d + H2O <> H2CO3 <> H + HCO3 -*Hemoglobin also acts as a buffer Cell= Organic phosphate (pH: 6.9-7.4; avg pH 7.1) *inorganic phosphate model H3PO4H2PO4<7.2>HPO4<12.6>PO4
pH of Blood when OH is added/decreased and when H is added/taken away -Addition of OH and H effect [HCO3] – Adding OH increases [HCO3], increasing pH and vice versa – Adding H decreases [HCO3], decreasing pH and vice versa * 1 HCO3 consumed per H added
Open system used to buffer blood (H-H of blood) CO2 and H2CO3 <> H + HCO3 are controlled independently –concentration of one does not affect the other in a direct way –pH change is less dramatic *pH-610 + log[HCO3]/[CO2 d]
Hypoventilation vs Hyperventilation -hypoventilation slows respiratory rate, raising Pco2 and lowering pH –hyperventilation increases respiratory rate, lowering Pco2 and raising pH
CO2 and HCO3 acid-base imbalances and the process of occurrence -CO2 imbalances=respiratory acidosis and alkalosis –HCO3 imbalances= Metabolic acidosis and Alkalosis – Alkalemia= process of raising the pH –Acidemia= process of lowering the pH
4 common causes of metabolic alkalosis -Acute alkali administration (antacids) –Vomiting –Gastric aspiration –Diuretics
3 common causes of metabolic acidosis -Renal failure –Methanol poisoning –Diabetic ketoacidosis
Created by: MastamikeOD