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matter is anything that occupies space
solids matter with definite weight,volume and shape
liquids matter with definite weight and volume but no definite shape
gasses matter with definite weight but indefinite volume and shape
physical change a change in the physical characteristics of a substance without creating a new substance
chemical change a change in a substance that creates a new substance with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance
chemistry is the scientific study of matter and the physical and chemical changes of matter
organic chemistry deals with all matter that is now living or was alive at one time, with carbon present, such as plants and animals
inorganic chemistry studies all matter that is not alive, has never been alive and does not contain carbon, such as rocks, water and minerals
elements are basic substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Hydrogen atomic#1-symbol-H-category-gas
carbon atomic#6-symbol-C-category-solid
nitrogen atomic#7-symbol-N-category-gas
oxygen atomic#8-symbol-O-category-gas oxygen is the abundant element in the earth's crust and the second most abundant element in the earth's atmosphere
sulfur atomic#16-symbol-S-category-solid
COHNS (carbon,oxygen,hydrogen,nitrogen and sulfur)
atoms are the smallest complete unit of an element
protons have a positive charge(+)
neutrons have no electrical charge.determines the weight of the atom
electrons have a negative electrical charge (-) they make it possible for atoms to unite with other atoms to form bonds
molecule is two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond
compound atoms that combine are different for example an atom of hydrogen and an atom of oxygen the resulting molecule is a
amino acids are compounds consisting of carbon,oxygen,hydrogen,and nitrogen. There are 22 common amino acids. Amino acids join together in chains to become proteins,which provide the chemicals the body needs for growth and repairing tissues
hair is a form of protein called keratin. Keratin in hair contains 19-of-22 common amino acids. In fact hair is made of 97% keratin protein and 3% trace minerals
peptide bonds the amino acids that create protein are linked together end to end also known as an end bond
side bonds hydrogen bonds,salt bonds, disulfide bonds and van der Waal's Forces the four bonds holding protein chains together by four side bonds
hydrogen bond which works on the principle that unlike charges attract. Hair has many hydrogen bonds, which are individually very weak and can be easily be broken by heat or water.
salt bond is also a result of the attraction of unlike charges. The negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in another amino acid grouping.hydrogen and salt bonds can be weakened by water leaving the hair more pliable
disulfide bond is the most important to your work. a lot of your chemical services, particularly perming and relaxing, directly affect the disulfide bond by either breaking the disulfide bond or reforming it in a new shape. This process is a chemical change
van der Waal's Forces is based on the theory that atomic groups prefer an enviroment with other groups that have structures similar to theirs.
potential hydrogen (pH) is a unit of measurement that indicates whether a substance is acidic,neutral or alkaline. PH numbers measure the amount of acid or alkali in a water-based solution. The ph measurement scale ranges from o-to-14 with number 7 as neutral
acid balanced means just that,balanced within the acid range of 4.5 to 5.5
A mixture is two or more substance that are physically combined
solutions are mixtures of two or more kinds of molecules, evenly dispersed.
solvent which is any substance that is able to dissolve another substance.
solutes can be either solid,liquid or gas
suspensions are also mixtures of two or more kinds of molecules
water is considered a universal solvent because it is capable of dissolving more substances than any other solvent. only oil and wax can not be dissolved in water.
emulsions are formed when two or more nonmixable substances (like oil and water) are united with the help of a binder or gum-like substance.
ointments are mixtures of orgnaic substances and a medicinal agent, usually found in a semi-solid form
soaps are mixtures of fats and oils converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified.
powders are equal mixtures of inorganic and organic substances that do not dissolve in water and that have been sifted and mixed until free of coarse gritty particles
immiscible liquids not able to be mixed
miscible liquids able to be mixed together without separating
surfactants cleansing agent also called surface active agents are used to remove oil from the hair
hydrophilic is a water-loving part
lipophilic is a oil-loving part
water purification sedimentation and filtration
all-purpose shampoo contain a low-alkaline content and a low concentration of surface active agents
acid-balanced(non-stripping) shampoo are formulated to have the same pH as the hair and skin (4.5 to 5.5) and can be used on almost all types of hair
"plain" shampoo are usually strong and contain a high alkaline or soap base are not recommended for chemically treated or damaged hair
Soapless shampoo are able to lather without harsh alkaline ingredients
medicated shampoo the contain ingredients designed to treat scalp and hair problems or disorders
clarifying shampoo often have a higher alkalinity in order to be able to remove residue, such as product build-up,dirt etc.
anti-dandruff shampoo are formulated for either a dry or oily scalp and contain an anti-fungus or germicide ingredient and conditioners to control dandruff conditions or other scalp conditions that could breed infections
liquid dry shampoo are used to cleanse the scalp and hair when the client is unable to receive a normal shampoo
powder dry shampoo are formulated for clients who are bedridden and cannot wet their hair . These shampoos contain orris root powder that absorbs soil and oil as the product is brushed through the scalp and hair.
conditioning shampoo contain small amounts of animal,vegetable or mineral additives that penetrate into the cortex or coat the cuticle layer of the hair.
color shampoo contain temporary color molecules that adhere to the outer cuticle of the hair and deposit color
shampoo for thinning hair are formulated as gentle shampoos, with a lighter molecular weight that does not cause damage or weigh hair down
cosmetic apperarance is the luster or shine of the hair
porosity refers to the ability of the hair to absorb moisture,liquids or chemicals
manageability is determined by how easily a comb can pass through wet or dry hair
elasticity is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its natural shape without breaking.
vinegar and lemon (acid) rinses help keep the cuticle compact
creme rinses soften and add luster
medicated rinses are designed with ingredients that control minor dandruff and scalp conditions.
instant conditioners coat the hair shaft and restore moisture and oils, but do not penetrate into the cortex or replace keratin in the shaft.
normalizing conditioners also usually contain a vegetable protein and have an acidic pH.
body-building conditioners are required when hair is fine and limp and contains too much moisture to maintain a good style
moisturizing conditioners contain hydrolyzed animal proteins and are recommended for dry, brittle hair that has been mechanically or chemically damaged
customized conditioners are formulated to meet special needs.
waving lotion is a processing lotion applied to break disulfide bonds
neutralizer rebonding lotion reforms the disulfide bonds into new configuration. The main ingredient found in neutralizers are is either hydrogen peroxide,sodium perborate, or sodium bromate.
alkaline waves (cold waves) which are processed without heat and have a pH of approximately 8.0 to 9.5. The main ingredient found in alkaline waves is thioglycolic acid or it deravitives and ammonium hydroxide.
acid waves (heat waves) which are processed with heat and must be wrapped with tension. Acid waves have approximate pH of 6.9 to 7.2 . The main ingredient in acid waves is glyceryl-monothioglycolate.
sodium hydroxide formulated with 2% to 3% sodium hydroxide in a heavy cream base with an alkaline pH of anywhere from 11.5 to 14. It is important to remember that chemical action of sodium hydroxide is irreversible. Once the bond has been broken it cannot be reformed
ammonium thioglycolate formulated with 4% to 6% thioglycolic acid or its derivatives with 1% ammonium hydroxide and a 8.5 to 9.5 pH. A cream base is also usuallly added.
ALERT! sodium hydroxide and thioglycolate are not compatible
curl reformation a soft curl perm (which will be referred to as curl reformation or curls) is a service used to loosen the texture of curly to tightly curled hair.
oxidants often called developers are products that have the ability to release oxygen, which is needed for a chemical change.
oxidative colors are mixed with an oxidant(developer) such as hydrogen peroxide
nonoxidative colors are not mixed with oxidants and are used straight from the bottle
oxidation process a substance loses an electron and oxygen is acquired. When a substance gains an electron and oxygen is released the process is called reduction. This process not only occurs in hair color services, but in perming/relaxing services as well.
temporary colors (non-oxidative colors) are non-reactive,direct dyes that only coat the surface of the hair shaft.
semi-permanent colors (non-oxidative colors) last through several shampoos,then the color molecules generally shampoo out.
long lasting semi-permanent colors (oxidative colors) sometimes referred to as demi-permanent or oxidative without ammonia use a low volume peroxide to develop the color molecules and aid in the color depositing
ammonia is a colorless gas with a strong odor, composed of hydrogen and nitrogen
certified colors the following components are contained within temporary colors
alkaline substance the color molecules in permanent hair color enter the hair with the aid of
Acidic a solution that has more positive hydrogen ions than negative hydroxide ions is:
Proteins what is created when amino acids join together in chains?
Compound When two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom the result is water which is called a
Element atoms that are the same form a
permanent hair colors (oxidative colors) sometimes referred to as oxidative with ammonia use a oxidation system that starts out with colorless molecules. When these molecules are combined with peroxide, a chemical reaction(change) occurs, building colored molecules.
aniline derivative permanent hair color these colors penetrate the cuticle and the cortex, remaining in the hair until they are removed by chemical means or the hair grows out and is cut off.
lighteners the hair is also referred to as bleaching or decolorizing. lightening hair always involves oxidation of the natural melanin in the hair. lightener or bleaches are made up of an alkaline substance such as ammonia
on-the-scalp lighteners are gentle enough to be applied directly on the scalp and are available in two forms oil lighteners and cream lighteners
off-the-scalp lighteners (powder bleaches) contain alkaline salts and a strong oxidizing agent that, when mixed with peroxide becomes a strong lightening product.
developers hydrogen peroxide (H2 02) is the most common developer or oxidizing agent used in hair coloring and in hair lightening. It is mixed in various proportions and various strengths. The strength most often used is a 20 volume solution.
Created by: arlenebermudez



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