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EC-6 abridged

Stage 1 Pre-language Babbling Stage: 6-8 months old. The child begins to make repetitive patterns of sound.
Stage 2 Holophrastic One-word Stage: 9-18 months juice or up
Stage 3 Pivot and open Two-word Stage: 18-24 months juice gone or doggy gone
Stage 4 content but not function Telegraphic Stage: 24-30 months more than 2 words but just meaning not function truck carries big blocks
Stage 5 of acquisition Multiword stage: after 30 months the characteristic grammatical or functional structures of the primary language emerge and are incorporated
Behaviorist view of language acquisition BF Skinner Individuals learn language as a direct response to stimuli.
Nativist view of language acquisition Noam Chomsky Individuals are born with universal grammar wired into their brain, which they use as a template for language acquisition
Social Interactionist view of language acquisition The child will learn to speak in the manner and syntax of those people who speak to him or her
Cognitive view of language acquisition Piaget Individuals develop linguistic skills in order to control their environments
Piaget's Four basic Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor intelligence (0-2 years) 2. Preoperational thought (2-7 years) 3. Concrete Operations (7-11 years) 4. Formal Operations (11-15 years)
Phonology The way a language sounds; the sounds of the words and their proper pronunciation
Phoneme The smallest distinguishable unit of sound that can hold meaning in a given language
Morphology The structure and form of the words including inflection, derivation, and compounds
Morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of a morphological system
Syntax the basic structure of the sentences think rules of grammar
Grammar the set of rules that must be followed in order to attain a certain, somewhat arbitrary standard of acceptable expression
Phonetics the study of sounds made during human speech
Semantics the meanings of words
denotation literal meaning, problems for Amelia Bedelia
connotation implied meaning like raining cats and dogs
Pragmatics how social context effects interpretation how are you
Four Key Concepts help ELLs in written and spoken english 1 use realia 2. interaction: ask questions and use groups 3. Increase thinking and study skills: thought-provoking questions & complex topics for research 4. Use the native language to increase understanding and comprehension: translate
Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner Everyone learns according to one of 8 intelligences rather than just in the traditional linguistic and logical manner. (verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic,musical, naturalist,interpersonal, intrapersonal)
Strategies to help ESL/ELL in a mainstream classroom 1. Pair with native speaker 2. use a translation dictionary 3. Use lots of visual cues 4. Emphasize key words with flash cards 5. use the newspaper/TV summarize and present to the class
inflection changing pitch or tone of voice
derivation adding prefixes and suffixes to change the meaning
balanced reading approach use both phonics (skills based) and whole language (meaning based)
Fluency accuracy, speed (rate), intonation
Guided Oral Reading Strategy an instructional strategy used to improve verbal reading skills, whole-group, or paired
Motivating strategies create a postive classroom atmosphere, assign various reading tasks from various sources, public praise and feedback
Indirect Vocabulary Learning through conversations between & with adults, when adults read to the child, by reading on his own
Teachers can teach Direct Vocabulary Learning by... explaining words the student will encounter prior to reading, encouraging the student to look for the new words and use ones just learned, providing the same words in different contexts, defining new words and relating them to familiar scenes
Steps of the Writing Process Brainstorm, Develop an outline, Write the rough draft, Revise, Edit, Ask for feedback, Make Corrections, Print, Learn from comments
Transaction with the text when the reader has a dialogue with the printed material. the child is engaged and particpates of the exchange of ideas and info
Literary Criticism the philosophical study, evaluation and interpretation of literature based on a scholarly reading ofthe text
Three types of reader response criticism individualist,experimenters, uniformists
Cultural Studies focused on the role literature plays in every day life
Comparative Literature compared and contrasted literature from different languages, countries, and cultures
Deconstruction determined what can be interpreted in the text that is not explicitly stated
New Criticism studied what is written, not the goals of the writer
What was the earliest form of literature poems, usually with a religious and/or didactic purpose
Semantic mapping strategy to connect words learned in class with those previously experienced,
alliteration first letters all the same, tongue twisters
phonemic stress nursery rhymes, Dr. Suess bookds, emphasize sounds and patterns of ending words
phonological awareness recognize and manipulate components of sound including segmenting into syllables and phonemes, stress in words (pre'sent present'), intonation
bottom up approach skills based, phonics
top down approach meanings based, whole language, whole to part,
dolch words sight word lists of most frequently used words, key to fluency
decoding or context clues 3 types: semantic, syntactic, structural
semantic clues think about what is already known about a topic: story about hawk first review all that is known about birds
syntactic clues word order in a sentence provides clues like hawks are ___
structural clues letter groups within words, derivational morphemes (prefixes and suffixes) and inflectional endings (like s, es,ed, er, est)
homonyms same sound and spelling but differt meanings such as club, fine, bank, rock
homophones words that sound the same but are spelled differently such as blue blew, hear here, eight ate
homographs words spelled the same but pronounced differently such as bow, present
words that are tought to understand homonyms, homophones, homographs, compound words (butterfly)
automaticity quick and accurate recognition - automatic
fluency read quickly and accurately with correct word stress, pitch, and intonation (prosody)
develop fluency and comprehension fluency by reading aloud, comprehension by reading silently
convergent from broad to narrow, coming to one answer
divergent from narrow to broad, many right answers
four writing skills speaking, listening, reading, writing
SQ4R survey, question, read,write, recite, review
DRTA directed reading thinking activity - 3 steps, sample, predict, confirm
6+1 Traits of Writing emphasizes elements of the writing process: organization, ideas, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions, presentation
Writers Workshop a writing process program: prewrite, draft, revise, rewrite, publish, celebrate
literature circle groups of students decide together what their roles and what questions and answers they are going to work on as they analyze a book
guided reading teacher and a small group of students work together to improve reading fluency, comprehension, etc.
shared reading teacher and whole class read a big book or large print material together
choral reading the whole class in unison reads along together
Created by: liejohnson
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