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Which of the following is expected with an abnormally high level of insulin? A. Dehydration B. Lethary or stupor c. Increased blood sugar D. Decreased Blood sugar E. Glucosuria F. Tremors or sweating B, D, F
Renin is secreted by A.______ cells located primarily in the B. _____ A. Juxtaglomerular B. wall of the afferent arteriole
In the male the internal urethral sphincter is located _______. Neck of bladder behind Prosthetic Urethra
Draw and label a picture of the renal filtration barrier. 1. Fenestrated Endothelium without diaphragm 2. Basal Lamina of Endothelium 3.Basal Lamina of Podocyte 4. Slit Pores 5. Slit Pore Membrane
Low levels in infancy results in mental or growth retardation. Thyroid Hormones, T3 and T4
Stimulates the secretion of insulin-like growth factor. Growth Hormone
Increases blood sugar by glucoNEOgenesis. Glucagon and Cortisol
Facilitates movement of glucose into the hepatocyte. Insulin
Secreted by parafollicular cells Calcitonin
Low levels may cause increase in pigmentation. Cortisol
Causes increase in blood calcium. Parathyroid hormone
Causes increase in protein stores. Growth Hormone and Insulin
Stimulates the distal tubules of the kidney to secrete K+ Aldosterone
Secretion is inhibited by somatostatin. Growth hormone, Glucagon and Insulin
Lysosomal enzymes are required in its formation Thyroid Hormones, T3 and T4
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule described. A. Forms the interstitial osmotic gradient. B. Absorbs most of the water from filtrate C. Contains sensory epithelium D. Only site for absorption of glucose A. Thin Segment B. Proximal Tubule C. Distal Tubule D. Proximal Tubule
It appears that all causes of nephrotic syndrome are related to structural and/or functional abnormalities in the ______. Glomerular Basement Membrane
Name the accessory male reproductive gland which secretes: A. Fructose and prostaglandins B. Fibrinolysin and acid phosphatase. A. Seminal Vesicle B. Prostate
Penile erection occurs when A. _____ nerves casue closure of the A-V Shunt and diversion of blood into the B. _____. A. Parasmpathetic B. Cavernous Space
Smooth Muscle of the excretory ducts is innervated by _______ nerves. Sympathetic
Give 2 major requirements for spermatogenesis. 1. High local levels of testosterone 2. Intimate contact with Sertoli Cells
In which cell of spermatogenesis does genetic recombination occur? Primary Spermatocyte
The Sertoli cell secretes A.______ in response to B. ______ stimulation. A. Androgen Binding Protein and Inhibin B. Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Describe the state of the germ cell of the primordial follicle. 4N DNA arrested in diplotene of 1st meiotic division
Draw and label picture of primordial cell. Include: 4N - Germ Cell (Primary Oocyte), Follicular Cells and basal lamina
Name the male reproductive organ described. A. Benign hyperplasia is common in elderly men. B. Secretes a product high in prostaglandins. C. Site of functional maturation of sperm. A. Prostate B. Seminal Vesicle C. Epidydimus
Which are components of secondary follicle? A.Theca Interna which secretes estrogen B.Theca Externa which developed from stroma C.Secondary Oocyte D.Granulosa cells which secrete progesterone E. Zona Pellicida which develops from oocyte and the granu A, B, E
What stimulates the LH Surge? Estrogen
Stimulus for elevated levels that result in menses. Neither Estrogen or Progesterone
Inhibits both FSH and LH? Progesterone
High levels required in early pregnancy are stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin. Progesterone
Stimulates edema in the mammary stroma and in the endometrium. Progesterone
Requires both the theca interna and the granulosa for its synthesis. Estrogen
Secreted during the luteal phase Both Estrogen and Progesterone
Actions in the vagina contribute to the formation of an acidic environment Estrogen
High levels from the placenta inhibit maximum prolactin secretion Estrogen
Secreted by the adrenal cortex Both Estrogen and Progesterone
Which layer of the endometrium is shed in menses? Functional Layer
Increases the use of fats for energy. Glucagon, Cortisol and Insulin
Describe the structure of the blood-testis barrier. Occluding Junctions of Sertoli Cells
Which cells of the blood-testis barrier are located in the basal compartment? Spermatogonium
Squamous metaplasia near the external cervical os may block the drainage of mucus from deep clefts and result in masses of mucus called ____. Nabothian Follicles
The most common benign tumor in the uterus is composed of ______. Smooth Muscle
These tumors usually regress after menopause because they are _____. Hormone Dependent
Give the effect of estrogen (from the ovarian follicle) on each of the following: A. Secretions by the adenohypophysis B. Endometrium C. Vaginal Mucosa A. INCREASED Luetinizing Hormone Secretions and DECREASED Follicle Stimulation Hormone Secretions B. Endometrium increases in thickness 2-3 times C.Increased Glycogen and Sloughing of Vaginal Mucosa
Give the effect of progesterone (from corpus luteum) on each of the following: A. Female Mammary Gland (of reproductive age) B. Secretions of the adenohypophysis A.Edema of the Stroma B. Secretes large amounts of Progesterone
Describe the state of the germ cell in the secondary follicle. Continued development of primary follicle under FSH and LH stimulations. Granulosa & Theca interna become thicker. Progresses through 1st Meiotic division. FOrmation of Antrum within the Granulosa
Abnormalties in the structure of the glomerular basement results in excessive loss of _____ in the urine which may eventually lead to nephrotic syndrome. Protein
Name the the structure/cell of the kidney described. A. Forms the slit pores B. Secretes Renin (name the cells and their location) A. Podocytes B. Walls of the Afferent Arteriole
An elderly man complains of frequent and difficult urination. What is the most common condition causing this problem. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
What is the underlying pathology in Type 2 diabetes mellitus? Insulin resistant targets
Why are high levels of insulin life threatening? It can cause acidosis
What is the function of the thin segments (of the juxtamedullary nephrons)? Interstitial Osmotic Gradient
Whichportion of the uniniferous tubule is the major target of aldosterone? Distal tube
What does the distal tube do in response to aldosterone? Absorb NA+ and Secrete K+
Which portions of the renal filtration barrier is formed by podocytes? Slit pores and slit pore membranes
THe internal urethral sphincter is formed of ________ (tissue) and the external urethral sphincter is formed of B.________(tissue). A. Middle circular smooth muscle of bladder B. Skeletal Muscle of pelvic diaphram
WHich cells of the kidney function to support the glomerulus and maintain the glomerular basement membrane? Mesangial Cells
HOrmone secreted by the zona fasciculata> Aldosterone
Causes increase in blood glucose by glycoNOLysis? Glucagon
Permeability of the collecting ducts to water is controlled by? Anti-Diuretic Hormone
Which male reproductive excretory ducts are lined by motile cilia? Efferent Ducts
By which fundamental processes are primary spermatocytes produced from spermatogonia? Spermatocytogenesis
Hormone that stimulates the synthesis of Proteins Insulin
What is the fundamental pathology of Type 1 Diabetes? Anti-bodies against beta cells destroy the beta cells
Consider the cells of the ovary which produce androgens. A. The _____ cells resemble Leydig cells and increase production during pregnancy. B. The ______ cells secrete androgens during the ovarian cycle in response to luteninzing hormone. A. Ovarian Hilar Cells B. Theca Interna
What tissue forms a uterine fibroid? Smooth Muscle of the Uterine wall
The transformation zone of the cervix is an important site of pathology. What is the transformation zone? Be Specific Squamo-Columnar Junction where stratified squamous epithelium in the vagina meets with the columnar epithelium of the endo-cervical canal
Consider the mammary gland. A. Which hormone stimulates the synthesis and secretion of milk? B. Which hormone causes edema of the stroma? A. Prolactin B. Progesterone
Diagram and label a structure that is ovulated. What is occurring in the nucleus of this germ cell? A. Diagram of oocyte B. 1st meiotic division occur producing a gamate and polar body
Consider lutenizing hormone. In the male, it targets A. ______ and causes the target to B. _______ A. Leydig Cell B. Secrete testosterone
Consider lutenizing hormone. In the ovarian follicle, it targets A. ______ and causes the target to D.________ A. Corpus Luteum B. Secrete Progesterone
A. What is the stimulus for ovulation? B. WHat triggers A. to occur? A. Surge of Lutenizing Hormone B. 36 hours of high estrogen levels
Following fertilization, which hormone rescues the corpus luteum? Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
By what processes do spermatogonia and oogonia give rise to primary spermatocytes and primary oocytes? Mitosis and differentiation
Created by: brookert81



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